Sunday, April 12, 2015

Our Place: Mud Houses, Schools and Sundry Remnants

An Evolution

You can’t read many accounts of early European settlement in New Zealand without coming across a mention of “mud houses”. Typically early arrivals first lived in tents, but soon looked for sturdier accommodation. Certainly, stories of Ngatimoti’s pioneers contain frequent references to “mud houses” or "whares" (huts) a borrowing from the Māori word for a small native dwelling.

Cob cottage at Mount Gladstone station in the Awatere, 1880s

“Mud houses” were not made of mud brick, which would have soon melted in New Zealand's often damp climate, but of what we better know as cob. Cob cottages had many uses, and even when replaced by "proper" wooden houses, still made handy shelters or outbuildings and were very durable as long as they were thatched securely, usually with toi toi or raupo. An original cob room or two could often be found in later homesteads. In the early days it wasn't uncommon for landowners to commute while they cleared and planted their land, working on their outlying farms and living in a "mud whare" for days on end and returning home periodically to their families based in the nearest settlement. Cob builders were versatile. Earth could be substituted for clay and other substances like animal dung were often added. The reinforcing could be any suitable vegetation at hand, shredded native flax being a favourite. Horses were a rarity in the very early days and bullocks may have been used for the trampling instead. Many poorer settlers, who had no implements or livestock, used their own hard labour (and probably their childrens') to do the mixing. In his history of the Awatere, A.L Kennington describes the standard process:

"Only the door, window frames and roof supports are made of wood. In the usual process of building cob, the clay would be softened with water to the right degree, and plenty of chopped up tussock would be added to act as reinforcing. The mixture was then thoroughly trampled, usually by riding a horse around in it. The walls were built layer by layer with this material, and if things went well an eighteen inch thick wall could rise a foot a day. it remained soft enough for the preceding day's layer to be trimmed with a spade before being added to. At the end of each day the horse would be ridden up and down in the nearest creek to clean his legs." [1] 

Sections 63 & 64, Block X,  Motueka Survey District.
The inset block is the Ngatimoti School section 
conveyed to the Education Board in 1874.
The farm where our own house now stands, on the north side of a ridge along Waiwhero Road, close to St James Church, once hosted the first Ngatimoti School. It opened on August 17, 1868, sixteen years before the church was built, on land belonging to the property’s first owner, George Young. He had settled here with his brother Henry sometime around 1864, and by 1865 they are registered on the electoral roll for Motueka as "farmers, freeholders and householders, Nga Timoti". They owned, and ran as a single unit, two adjoining sections of Crown Grant land at Ngatimote (sic - the spelling was variable for some time), situated in Block X, Motueka, within the Nelson Provincial District. [2] The Youngs are something of a mystery - that they came from and returned to England is all we know of the background of this pair, though they appear to have been affable and obliging chaps, and must have been men of some means and education.

Henry Young had Section 63, an 85 acre block of land which took in the flats at the base of Church Hill and crossed Waiwhero Road to include a small triangle of land on the further side of the Orinoco River, with a small hill on which a home built by Graeme Marshall now stands. George's piece, Section 64, was 198 acres. It started at the top of the Waiwhero ridge and went down the hill to the creek at the bottom of the valley. Both blocks ran from that creek up and over he long hill on the far side to about the area marked today by Syder Road. Between them, the Youngs also owned and leased several other blocks of land in the area. [3] The whole of the Motueka Valley was then densely covered in native forest, alive with birds and insects. The only access to Ngatimoti from Motueka was a track originally hacked out of the bush by the Salisbury brothers through boggy Lower Moutere and the Waiwhero swamps, bumpily corduroyed with logs at the wettest spots and just wide enough for a bullock dray to traverse.  At first there was no road at all from Motueka around the river, though by the early 1870s, when Henry Young was a member of the Pangatotara Road Board, work was underway on a Pangatotara cart track.

Timber slab hut at Ngatimoti in 1867.
Owner and  location uncertain, but believed to have been somewhere along Waiwhero Road.
The Young brothers' hut would have looked similar to this.

The Youngs lived in a timber slab hut fronting the roadside. [4] The exact spot is unknown, but all indications put it on the site where the current house stands. By 1867 they had enough land cleared to be farming 112 sheep. They ran a small shop selling provisions and Henry served as both Ngatimoti’s first postmaster and first schoolmaster. It's not clear when he left the district, but he is still listed at his Ngatimoti Section 63 on the electoral roll for 1880-1881. Deeds held at the Motueka Museum show that he was leasing another block of land he owned - Section 107, Square 7 - to the Brereton brothers, William and John. The last date recorded on this lease is 15 December 1880, and all three parties signed at the time. George is thought to have left the area in 1872 and his Section 64 sold on his behalf by Henry in 1874. The acre of land George had donated for the Ngatimoti school was then conveyed to the Education Board. At this point the schoolroom took on an additional role in the community - as a place of worship on alternating Sunday mornings for the Anglican, Wesleyan and Plymouth Brethren congregations of Ngatimoti. Wesleyans shared alternate Sundays with the Brethren; Wesleyan services being held in the morning and Plymouth Brethren assemblies in the afternoons. Anglican services moved to St James Church after its consecration in 1884 and the Wesleyans appear to have dropped out of the race early on, but the Brethren continued to meet at the schoolroom until their own Meeting Hall was built around the turn of the twentieth century.

Bullock dray in the bush
Tasman, New Zealand .
Artist: Francis Edward Nairn (1819-1910)

The Plymouth Brethren had a strong following in Ngatimoti, thanks to the influence of James George Deck, an ex-East India Company Army officer and charismatic preacher who came to New Zealand on the Cornwall in 1852 with the Salisburys and Vyvyans and settled for a period along Waiwhero Road. His property (with mud house - a large one to accommodate his large family) was situated where the up-market "Paratiho Lodge" used to operate until quite recently. For a short while it was the centre for an idealistic community of similarily high-minded friends - the Griffins and Bryants being amongst those who took up land adjacent to the Decks' farm for this purpose. Poor, infertile land and an almost total absence of practical farming experience made this a disastrous experiment for all concerned. Though remaining friends, they went their separate ways, returning thankfully to what counted as civilization in colonial New Zealand. [5] During this time the third of J.G. Deck's sons by his first wife Alicia (nee Feild), also James George but always known as George, fell victim to the "Waiwhero curse", suffering a badly broken leg which put paid to heavy physical work. Highly educated, like all the Deck children (both boys and girls), he turned instead to school-teaching as a career. He served as widely-respected headmaster at Lower Moutere School from 1874 to 1896 and converted several prominent Lower Moutere families to the Brethren movement - Hewetson, Starnes, and Wills among them.

While the Anglican Church promulgated the old English class system, Deck's teachings were democratic, tolerant and ecumenical in style, very appealing to new colonists looking for a more egalitarian social order. Although there were stoushes of the sort to be expected in a small rural community settled by a number of strong personalities, religion doesn't seem to have been a point of conflict. Brethren and Anglicans were of equal numbers in the Motueka Valley and generally worked and lived together with a great deal of good will. However, Deck's ecumenical approach didn't please everyone - when word of his open advocacy of Christian unity got back to his more Exclusively-disposed Brethren in England there was a ruckus, and a delegation of leading lights came out to New Zealand to set him back on the straight and narrow. Consequently Deck went with the Exclusive party and most of the local assemblies he'd established followed his lead. His sons John and Samuel Deck, however, chose to go with the Open Brethren.

The old Remnant house which grew up around Ngatimoti's first unofficial "mud room" school.
Now you see it...

A mystery attaches to the story that pased down through two generations of the Remnant family to the Biggses, that the remains of Ngatimoti's first school, described as two “mud rooms”, were incorporated in the rambling home which had grown up around them by the time the property was bought from the Remnants in the early 1940s by the Biggs family. Those mud rooms with their earthen floors, remembered well by Jenny Biggs, proved a housewife's nightmare to keep clean and were demolished. The old house itself was replaced on the same site by the current dwelling in the mid-1950s. A lot of original material was recycled (once, when we replaced a glass door panel broken by an over-enthusiastic child, we found it had been packed with newspaper dated 1891), so the old house lives on today to some extent in the more recent one. [6]

Now you don't.
 The sprawling old Remnant home has been replaced by a single-storey bungalow. Rex Biggs recalls his grandfather and father Fred working on the conversion when he was a young boy.

Four Remnant brothers or perhaps half-brothers, raised by William and Sarah (nee Edwards) Remnant from Lapscome, Albury, in Surrey, England, emigrated to New Zealand at different times - James, Christopher, George and Charles - but the first to arrive in Ngatimoti was probably George (1828-1892) who came here around 1864 to manage the estate of military settler, Thomas Vyvyan, brother-in-law of Ngatimoti's earliest pioneer, John Park Salisbury. [7]
John Park Salisbury (1833-1893) "Blazer of trails"
He married James George Deck's daughter, Clara.
In October, 1854, John Salisbury and his brother Edward ventured into unknown territory when they set off up the Motueka River in a canoe on a three-day trip to claim the 400 acres of sight-unseen Motueka Valley land they'd bought. They chose a likely place to settle, and proceeded to build - you guessed it - a mud whare, made the hard way, by sweat equity. Soon joined by their brother Thomas, they cleared a plot, planted vegetables and had this first home thatched and ready by the end of summer. They led the way, and opened up the Motueka, Baton and Graham Valleys and the Mt Arthur Tablelands to future settlers. [8]

The story of Ngatimoti's settlement really is one of a band of intrepid brothers - Salisburys, Youngs, Remnants, Cantons, Beatsons and Breretons among them. 

When we arrived at Ngatimoti in 1980 in the vanguard of a wave of alternative lifestylers, the majority of residents still bore the surnames of these early settlers, which included as well Heath, Haycock and McGaveston. However, the traditional Motueka Valley multi-generational small mixed-farm economic model, propped up for decades by an increasingly endangered tobacco industry, was already failing and the number of those surnames have since dwindled as the younger generation has moved on in search of other options.

A legacy allowed the Vyvyans to return, with many a sigh of relief, to England in 1867. Life in the colony proved much harder than anticipated for more than a few settlers and many of those with the means to do so returned Home. Those who had no such option just soldiered on. The Vyvyans' Ngatimoti estate was bought by another ex-East India Company Army officer, Major Robert Mercer Paton. Although now running his own farm nearby, George Remnant continued to act as manager for this new owner for a further ten years. Major Paton, who became a keen if rather idiosyncratic member of the Plymouth Brethren community in Richmond, was largely an absentee landholder, preferring to live at "Beacon Hill", his property at Hope. The Vyvyans' estate was running 2000 sheep and comprised 1000 acres when bought by Major Paton, who leased and later freeholded a further 500 acres in the Greenhill area. The Major's nephew, Alexander O'Brien (son of an East India Coy. officer killed at Fatehpur during the Indian Mutiny), later took over the running of the property which he named "Woodstock", perhaps after a favourite hill country resort near Shimla in India, where he was born. He possibly continued to employ George in some capacity - George and Alexander O'Brien clearly had a good working relationship and were both Plymouth Brethren. George appointed Alex O'Brien executor of his will.

A river runs through it...
Nothing else shaped the lives of the lives of the early settlers like the Motueka River.

When Alexander O'Brien retired to Enner Glyn in 1890, he sold his estate to Dr Johann Johansen, a German ex-army surgeon who arrived in Nelson in 1875 and set up as a medical practitioner in Motueka. Among the last of the large Motueka Valley estates from the early days to remain intact, the property was so big that it was divided into two adjoining blocks, known as "Upper Woodstock" and "Lower Woodstock", each with its own homestead. Dr Johansen lived in Motueka and put in a manager, not George Remnant, by now worn out after years of hard yakka, but another local man, Gavin Strachan. Following the doctor's death in 1895, the Johansen Estate was split up into multiple sections of varying sizes and put up for sale from 1902 onwards. [9] The Greenhill sections were advertised in 1906 and Greenhill Road was constructed around that time.

"Flaxbourne"'s pre-fabricated homestead (right), 
built in 1847. It was the first European dwelling 
in the Awatere. All trace of it has now vanished.

George had already been in New Zealand for some time before coming to Ngatimoti. He arrived in Wellington in 1848 and by 1849 was working for farming partners Frederick Weld and Charles Clifford on the first of the great Awatere sheep stations, "Flaxbourne". On January 28, 1853, George Remnant, shepherd, was married to 17-year-old Jane Neasham Sherman by the Rev. H. F. Butt - theirs was the first ever European marriage to be recorded in the Awatere. The wedding took place in a mud house, the cob cottage which was the first home of Alexander and Marjory (nee McRae) Mowat of the "Altimarlock" sheep run, where Jane was employed as domestic help. [10] 

Around 1857 George Remnant removed to the Moutere, having walked all the way to Nelson with his wife and their three small children. It's likely that he helped the Vyvyans establish sheep on "Tregawn", their Lower Moutere property in the McBrydie Road area, before taking over the running of their Ngatimoti land. Around 1860, those three oldest Remnant children - Priscilla, Jane and George - plus the two oldest Vyvyan boys - Henry and Frank - were recorded on the roll of the Lower Moutere School, which opened on its present site in 1857. In 1864 George acquired as a Crown Grant section 25 at Ngatimoti, known as "Lackner Farm". This is where he built a two-storey house and lived with his family. Section 23 immediately behind also became Remnant land at some point - conflicting accounts have George acquiring it in 1865 and his brother Christopher buying it from Henry Young in 1874. Details of ownership at Ngatimoti are often muddied by the early settlers' habit of playing swapsies with their various pieces of land. 

Section 25 was shared for a while by George's brother Charles, known as Charlie (b. 1837), a shadowy figure about whom we know little. He appears to have come to the Motueka Valley sometime after 1871 and left around 1879 after advertising his property for sale thus: "For sale in the district of Ngatimoti, 40 acres - splendid freehold property with dwelling house, barn and other out-buildings. Owner leaving the district." It doesn't seem that it did sell - perhaps George bought him out. Last mention of Charles Remnant has him at the Baton in 1880, where he is recorded as a goldminer. James Remnant (1822-1863) was the first of the brothers to come to New Zealand. He arrived in Nelson with his wife Hannah in 1842 on the "George Fyfe", but lived and died in Wellington. 

Pear trees planted by Christopher Remnant, believed to be over 140 years old.
Just visible is the workers' bach later added by Fred Biggs.

After a long illness, George Remnant's wife Jane died in 1887 at the age of 53, and he married again in 1888 to widow Emily Patience Wills (nee Scott). After George's death in 1892 Emily's only son, James Williams Wills III, farmed a 35 acre block cut from Section 25, on the south side of Waiwhero Road, opposite and running to the foot of Church Hill, and named it "Willow Brook". In 1899 he married Ellen Starnes, a daughter of Lower Moutere pioneer Stephen Starnes, raised a family of five and later built a new house to replace his stepfather George's old home.The fruit trees George had planted were the basis for Jim Wills' orchard, later praised as one of the best in the district. [11] 

James Williams Wills III & his wife Ellen (nee) Starnes
(seated centre), with their family.
The Starnes & Guy families were related.
His immediate neighbour, James Delaney, was born at Port Underwood in 1842, at that time a wild and lawless whaling station. He moved to Motueka with his family as a youngster and around 1878 shifted to Ngatimoti. Somewhere along the line, James Delaney acquired the bulk of George Remnant's Section 25, most likely after George's death - he is recorded as owning it by 1896. James Delaney and his son John established Ngatimoti's first Butter Factory in 1895. However, after his son's sudden death in 1899 at the age of 29, James lost heart and sold up, retiring to Nelson, where he died in 1903. In the estate sale following John Delaney's death Jim Wills bought the younger Delaney's Sections 4,5,& 6 along Waiwhero Road (next to the original Deck property) to add to his holdings.

Jim Wills was another member of the Plymouth Brethren, and around 1900 he granted the use of a piece of his land near the foot of Church Hill, opposite "Willow Brook", for the modest Brethren Meeting Hall which still stood on the lay-by there for several years after we arrived. No longer in use, as following an edict from on high in the 1950s, the Brethren community had by then moved into Motueka, it grew increasingly ramshackle and ended its life as a hayshed before being eventually demolished. Its place has since been taken by a new house. Jim Wills former home almost suffered the same fate, but was lovingly restored from almost total disrepair by Willy Snowden in the 1990s.
Getting to the other side...
Ngatimoti residents soon found 
Māori canoe 
the best way to get around the river.
Here the Breretons paddle 
past their Pokororo home.

Another of the Remnant brothers, Christopher (Chris) Snr (1834-1905), bought Section 64, the property on which the Ngatimoti School stood, in 1874, and by 1876 also owned Section 63. Christopher also owned Section 10 at the Ngatimoti Peninsula, which he bought on arrival in the Motueka Valley in 1864. To this land he later added the adjoining Section 9 and part section 27. It seems that he and George may have shared this land at the Peninsula, which was sold to brothers Guthrie and George Beatson in 1903. Christopher initially lived at the Peninsula, where he built a mud house, replaced by a wooden home in 1884, but in 1870 was living on Section 29 in the Orinoco Valley. He held on to tthe Peninsula property, which he and his brother George continued to farm and occupy at times, but tired of constant flooding from the Motueka River, moved up to the Waiwhero ridge site to live, a wise decision as it meant he missed the worst of the 1877 "Old Man" flood which wreaked so much havoc on properties sited along the banks of the Motueka River. [12] Managing properties on either side of the river would have had its challenges, as the Peninsula Bridge was not built until 1913 and until then residents had to cross the river as best they could by various means, none without danger - crossing fords by foot or horseback, in canoes, by punt or aerial cage.
One way or another.
Operated by pulleys, this hand-driven
aerial cage suspended above the
 Motueka River ran on wire ropes.
If desperate or keen enough, you could swim - romantic stories (possibly apocryphal) are told of eager young swains swimming across the river to meet up with sweethearts living on the other side. Dr Henry O'Brien Deck (Dr Johansen's successor) is known to have swum across the river on a number of occasions to attend patients. Once, after swimming the river to help deliver a baby, he was asked if he was well-compensated for going above and beyond and laughed, remarking that it was the tenth baby he had helped deliver for that particular family and he had yet to receive payment for the first one! Dr Deck was also famous for getting stuck on a wire rope halfway over the river while trying to reach another patient in labour and for setting his own broken leg when he came off his motorcycle on the Takaka Hill while riding to a callout in Golden Bay. Dr Deck, born at Waiwhero in 1860 and second of J.G. Deck's children by his second wife Lewanna Atkinson, was named "O'Brien" in memory of the late Lt-Colonel Charles O'Brien, Alex O'Brien's father and a good friend of J.G. Deck's from his East India Coy. army days.

Trees grown on our property came from original slips stuck in potatoes and brought out to New Zealand by Christopher Remnant on the ship "Anne Dymes" in 1864. [13] Several large old pear trees quite close to our house were propagated from those far-travelled plants. They are now over 140 years old and the story of their origin was confirmed many years ago by a Remnant descendant.

Christopher Remnant took over the role of Ngatimoti's postmaster and storekeeper from Henry Young and the area along the Waiwhero ridge then became known as "Remnants'" for many years. The job of postmaster and mail carrier went together and from 1874 to 1883, Christopher Remnant took the outward-bound mail by horseback twice-weekly from his home to the Moutere Highway, where it was transferred to the Newman's mail coach heading for Nelson. Mail destined for Ngatimoti residents then went back home with him and local residents called in to collect it. However, in the Motueka Valley the maxim "the mail must get through" came with the proviso "floods excepted". Flooding not uncommonly made access to the Moutere impossible, and even at that stage it was recognized that wholesale clearance by settlers was a major factor - stripping off the native bush which acted as a natural sponge spawned ecological disaster. Certainly during Henry Young's tenure as postmaster, he was thwarted on at least one recorded occasion during one of the more epic floods in May 1872, when George Remnant and and his family had to perch on boards over the beams in their barn for several hours after the little Orinoco River turned into a raging torrent and washed them out of their house. [14] In 1883 the roles of postmaster and carrier separated, and Benjamin Harford took over the job of mail courier (now upped to thrice-weekly) to and from the Remnants' until the post office moved to Guys' just down the road. The Harfords lived a little further along Waiwhero Road in a "whare" at White Pine Swamp.  

Packing apples at the Remnants' Waiwhero Road farm ca. 1910. 
Apple box lids read "One bushel choice apples grown by
Ngatimoti Association Nelson, NZ, and one also reads "Roseneath Apples".

Although described as a quiet and unassuming man, Chris Remnant had a reputation for being a bit cantankerous and at times got offside with the Road Board and the Waimea County Council. At one stage he caused some difficulties for other settlers by blocking access around the Peninsula, resulting in a court case, and upset local parents in 1896 by leaving logs across a customary short cut made by children across his land, adding an extra five miles to their daily trek to school (this would probably have also been at the Peninsula). Christopher and his wife Ann (Annie, nee Barrett) had nine children, but only two remained in the Ngatimoti area in adulthood - Christopher Jnr, who operated a sawmill run by a overshot water wheel near the Herring Stream at Pangatotara from 1899-1921, and James (1872-1945). Like Uncle George, James was a member of the Plymouth Brethren. It's possible that his father was as well - although recorded in the 1870s as a member of the party who advocated the building of an Anglican church for Ngatimoti, his burial service was conducted by schoolmaster and Brethren preacher George Deck, indicating that he perhaps converted to the Brethren somewhere along the way

Bob & Doris Gray's old farmhouse.
The boundary between their property and ours 
was at the far edge of the dirt strip. We sold that adjoining 
piece of land, once Fred Biggs' tobacco nursery block,
to later owners, Rod & Lyn Sharp.
When Christopher Snr retired in his later years to Motueka and died there in 1905, his son James took over the farm, which became known as "Roseneath" - perhaps named for James' wife, Rosa (nee Savage). He also had a block of land on Rosedale Road. James worked as a roadman and carter, driving a heavy cart with two horses in tandem. In addition, he provided accommodation for travelling salesmen passing through. He ran sheep, and his big wooden woolshed (still standing - just), with its paling-and-wire fenced yards and maze of internal pens, served as shearing central, busy with men on horseback, milling sheep and barking dogs as local farmers drove their flocks up to be shorn there. James and Rosa had two children, Doris and Gilbert, who as a young man settled in the Manawatu. A small block of land fronting Waiwhero Road between the church and the Remnant home was cut out of the farm for daughter Doris in 1926 after she married Scotsman Robert (Bob) Gray, an orchardist. Doris and Bob's piece of land has since been enlargened to the best part of an acre with the addition of land bought from our farm, and the old house they built, still on the site and owned by Paul and Margie Brereton when we moved here 35 years ago, has since been transformed into a imposing two-storeyed home. After many years, James and Rosa sold the Ngatimoti property, the sale being advertised in the "Nelson Evening Mail" on 8 June 1940, and noting that the property's improvements included "a house, stable, barn, machine shed, cow bails and packing shed". Also for sale were 240 Shropshire ewes, 1 horse, 9 cows, 16 young cattle and a mower, topdresser, binder, drill, harrows and discs. The Remnants went to Richmond, where both died a few years later. Doris and Bob went to Richmond at the same time, and it seems that they all lived together at the farm on the outskirts of Richmond called "Roseneath" after the old homeplace.

I can see for miles and miles... the view from our gate 35 years ago.

Thirty five years ago all the land along the Waiwhero ridgeway opposite our house was farmland belonging to Lawrence Guy, grandson of John Arliss Guy and only son of Arthur Guy. In recent times this land has been divided up and three homes now stand where once there was only grass. Also gone, the steep piece of road from the Orinoco Valley to Waiwhero Road which originally came out opposite the Ngatimoti School. It was still visible as a track across Guy farmland and used as a shortcut by walkers when we moved here. When the Waimea County Council sequestrated Guy land in 1901 to extend the Orinoco Road up what was then known as "School Hill" to its current junction point opposite St James Church, John Guy (definitely a strong personality) objected in no uncertain terms. [15] 

The original Orinoco road ran up "School Hill" past 
"Sunny Brae"and joined Waiwhero Road 
opposite the first Ngatimoti School 
(visible here at the top of the road).
The impressive "Monterey House" and its landscaped golf course, visible from today's Thorpe-Orinoco/Waiwhero Road junction, are also on ground that formerly belonged to the Guy family. The original villa demolished to make way for the new mansion was built around 1924 by Harry Beatson (a cousin) for Arthur Guy, John Guy's youngest son, and was later owned by Tom Beatson (another cousin). Beatsons and Guys were related by marriage - John Guy's sister Mary Alice Guy married Charles Edward Beatson, one of three sons of Nelson architect William Beatson who settled in the Orinoco Valley in the 1860s. For several years Charles & Mary farmed the land later run by first Walter Guy, then his brother Arthur, before retiring to live on Greenhill Road, opposite the current school. 

The Guy family at "Sunny Brae", Ngatimoti, 1910
L-R Back row (standing) Arthur, Margaret (Daisy), Hector
Front row (seated)
 John A. Guy, Ruth, Elizabeth (Lily) Guy, Walter.
John Guy and his wife Elizabeth (Lily) nee Strachan had three sons, Walter, Hector and Arthur, who all served during WWI. Walter and Hector were both killed in action and are commemorated at the Ngatimoti War Memorial. Under the exemptions permitted by the Military Service Act of 1916, John Guy was able to have Arthur, as his only surviving son, recalled home from active duty in 1918. Arthur married Helen Friesan, a Canadian teacher who came to Ngatimoti one summer for a raspberry-picking holiday, and the remaining Guy land is still farmed by one of their grandchildren.

The Remnants' block (still recognizably comprising the bulk of the Young brothers' Sections 63 & 64) was bought by Fred Biggs around 1942. Fred continued to run sheep and also a dairy herd, but his main income came from growing tobacco as a cash crop. He built a tobacco drying kiln (still useful for storage, if showing its age) and added a lean-to to the old woolshed for use as a tobacco sorting room. He also built a workers' bach, since enlargened and now handy accommodation for friends and family. Drainage channels were dug to straighten the course of the meandering creek at the bottom of the farm, once full of pools holding eels, small trout and freshwater koura, freeing up the flats on Section 64 for tobacco production. 

The Golden Weed
Introduced as a crop to the Motueka Valley in the mid-1920s,
tobacco proved an economic saviour for the area. The
 end of 

production in 1997 marked a difficult period for local farmers.
Fred reduced the size of the Young brothers' Sections 63 & 64 in 1975 by selling the steep hill running from that creek at the bottom of the farm to Robert Atkins. It had been put into pine plantation by Baigents and the trees were felled (along with our boundary fence as collateral damage) and replanted in the early 1980s. After a few more years it was sold on to developer Willie McMahon and later divided into 50 acre blocks. Once we roamed freely up on that hill overlooking our farm and could follow an old trail through Bogey Valley to the Motueka Valley Road, but now the hills are full of houses. A few years after arriving here we sold the block which had once been Henry Young's Section 63 to Peter and Gwen Dodgshun, who at that time owned the house which had once been the site of Rankin's creamery and home to the Ham family. The Dodgshuns later further subdivided the old Section 63 into two blocks (one on either side of the road) which they sold after moving into Motueka in the early 1990s.

In December 1994, soon after moving in, the new owner of the piece of Section 63 on the north side of the road lit a fire to clear his boundary on the creek and created a  firestorm which swept across the face of the hill behind, then up and over into Bogey Valley. Fortunately there were no houses on top then and the prevailing wind kept the flames from crossing the creek and destroying our property, but It took many hours of work by rural firefighters and helicopters with monsoon buckets to get things under control. Among the local residents watching anxiously from the Waiwhero ridgeway, one or two mourned as marijuana crops tucked away in the pine plantations went up in smoke. The distinctive heavy thump of an Iroquois chopper flying low over the valley was a familiar sound in late summers as the annual police dope busting operation got underway. Sometimes a chopper would cause great excitement for pupils by landing to unload its contraband cargo at the grounds of the Ngatimoti school (by then in its third incarnation at Greenhill Road).

Our home block in June 1981, as seen from the top of hill above.
Once called Remnants' Hill,  it was known by then as Baigents' Hill.
We sit almost exactly between the old Ngatimoti School site to the left and St James Church to the right.
The Orinoco Road can be seen to the left, Waiwhero Road runs across the middle in front of the house..
L-R: House, bach, kiln, woolshed and implement shed. The old Gray house to the right behind trees.
Tom Beatson's house, built for Arthur Guy in 1924, is on the knoll opposite at far centre. 

George Remnant and his first wife Jane had thirteen children and George was a prime mover in getting the first Ngatimoti School established. In July, 1868 an official notice announced the formation of the new Education District of Ngatimoti. [16] Money was raised by subscriptions from local residents, topped up by a subsidy from the Central Education Board in Nelson, and George Young donated the land - an acre-sized block just a few yards down the road from the Young home, cut out of George's Section 64 and sited near a bend in the road. ** (When Section 64 changed hands in 1874, the school acre were conveyed to the Central Education Board). Henry Young was appointed schoolmaster, at the princely sum of £48 a year. The school was officially in business by August 1868, and started off with 18 pupils, ten boys and eight girls. Those first entrants included nine Remnants, four Marshalls, three Parsonses and two Cantons. The schoolroom was 14ft x 20ft when built and from descriptions was almost certainly a wooden building. It was already too small by 1877, when tenders were invited for building an addition to the Ngatimoti school-room. [17] 

The schoolmaster's home (right) as seen around 1900
The 1889 schoolhouse is at left. Remnants' Hill, which
runs the length of both Sections 63 & 64, in behind.
A schoolmaster's house was built adjacent in 1878 and Richard Sutcliffe took up residence there. Henry Young had resigned as schoolmaster at the end of 1870 and his position was advertised in November that year: "Wanted, a teacher for Ngatimoti School, salary £60 per annum, without residence". [18] Sutcliffe was appointed and remained Ngatimoti's schoolmaster until 1887, when he was somewhat controversially dismissed (or perhaps forced to jump before being pushed) over claims that he was no longer competent to teach. Sutcliffe's treatment has to be seen as distinctly shabby, considering the years of service he devoted to the Ngatimoti community - as well as his work as schoolmaster, he ran Ngatimoti's small library (kept at the school from 1873) and was a stalwart of the Anglican Church, serving as lay reader, Sunday School teacher and choirmaster. Samuel Scott replaced him as Ngatimoti's schoolmaster. With around 40 children now on the roll, the next issue to arise was whether to increase the size of the existing schoolroom or build a new one. Those who voted for a new building won the day.

Opening of Ngatimoti's new schoolhouse in 1889.
The headmaster at that stage, Samuel Scott, is far right in a white jacket.
The school is long gone, but the schoolmaster's home, described by the Education Board in 1932 
as unfit for habitation, still stands in its original spot.

In 1889 a new wooden schoolhouse was built by building contractors Webley Bros. of Nelson next to the schoolmaster's home and opened to great rejoicing and celebration on Friday, 6th of September, 1889, which was declared a public holiday. [19] An account of a New Year's Day picnic held at the school a few months later shows a community happy to make the most of a chance to socialise and kick up their heels. A day of plentiful feasting and activities for both children and adults included a cricket game held in the paddock between the school and Christopher Remnant's homestead (later the site of son Jim Remnant's apple orchard). The nearby gully recorded as swallowing up a number of cricket balls is still quite recognizable! A lively concert in the evening was followed by dancing till the wee small hours of the next morning. [20] The original school building was left in place, and now known as the "Old Schoolroom", continued for at least a further decade to be used for Brethren Sunday assemblies, as a Sunday school for the Anglicans, community meeting room and for official occasions like elections and collections of road board and education rates. 

Close neighbours - "Sunny Brae" on the far side of 
the road and opposite on the near side, the 
Ngatimoti schoolhouse just visible at far right on the
school acre section, surrounded by Remnant farmland.
To th far right Waiwhero Road heads off to join up
 with the Lower Moutere Highway via Edwards Road.

The role of postmaster shifted to John Guy around 1889 and the post office then operated from "Sunny Brae", the home he'd built for his family on the knoll of the hill opposite the school and looking straight down Waiwhero Road to St James Church. (The current charming gingerbread house on that site is not the original - "Sunny Brae" was demolished soon after the Second World War.) Before long a new telegraph service was added. The post office's official telephone line iinstalled in 1892 was for many years the only one in the Motueka Valley. John Guy's father Walter was an early Lower Moutere settler who somewhere around the early 1870s bought a block of James George Deck's original Crown Grant land (Section 67) on the south side of the Waiwhero ridge and down into the Orinoco Valley. Walter Snr continued to live at at his home, "Moutere House" on Central Road, while his son John farmed the Ngatimoti property. The elder Walter Guy was an early member of the Moutere Education Commitee and a keen supporter of the Anglaican Church.. His children attended the Lower Moutere School and daughter Eleanor Gertrude taught there between 1874-1876. It's likely that the connection with George Deck, headmaster of the Lower Moutere School, was behind the purchase of the Deck family's land. The Guy family also shared part of adjoining Section 26 at Ngatimoti with schoolmaster Richard Sutcliffe, who built a home on a small section there after he "retired" as shoolmaster. The land later donated as a site for St James Church and the Ngatimoti War Memorial was originally a corner of Walter Guy's Section 67.

"I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills.."
St James Church, consecrated in 1884, and the Ngatimoti War Memorial.
Today they are the only tangible reminders of the early settlers of the Motueka Valley 
and the sons they sacrificed to the First World War.

There was a large apple orchard in the area between the Remnant home and the school, and James Remnant was often annoyed by children throwing balls over the fence and sneaking into the orchard to play hide-and-seek or scrump ripe apples in season. Kids being kids, no doubt the prospect of arousing Jim Remnant's ire just added the spice of danger to their fun! James Remant made land available around 1916 for a Ngatimoti Fruit Co-operative apple pack-house which ran for some years on the flat in the damp and shady lea of Church Hill opposite Rankins' creamery, providing a bracing environment for the packers. The early apple industry not proving as profitable as hoped due to lack of forethought about suitable markets, the packhouse fell into decline - the apple industry didn't take off properly till quite a bit later and by then tobacco crops had taken over in the Motueka Valley as a more reliable source of income. Derelict by the time the Biggs family took over the farm, it was pulled down around 1945. No sign at all remained of this pack-house when we bought the farm from Fred Biggs and moved here at the end of 1980.

Forbidden fruit! Jim Remnant's apple orchard - 
over-the-fence playground 
for the pupils of Ngatimoti's first school.
In 1893 it was proposed that the Ngatimoti schoolhouse be moved to a new site closer to the Orinoco-Rosedale corner to accommodate the growing number of pupils in that area. [21] A furious flurry of argument and counter-argument flew around the community, but in the end a compromise was reached: the Ngatimoti School would remain where it was and a new branch school would be set up in the Orinoco Valley on land donated by Orinoco farmer, Alexander White. Ngatimoti then became known locally as the "Big School". In 1897 the Education Board noted that the original schoolroom dating from 1868 was still on site and in use at the Ngatimoti school grounds. A recommendation was made that it be removed, and a couple of years later it made its way over the fence to finish its life as a shed on Jim Remnant's farm. This meant the Brethren lost their accustomed meeting place, but luckily Jim Wills came to the party and built them a dedicated Hall of their own.on his land, just down the road below Church Hill. Despite strenuous protest from John Guy, the Ngatimoti school on the Waiwhero Road ridgeway was eventually decommissioned in 1924, 56 years after it first opened, it being the general consensus of everyone (except John Guy) that the Black Bridge area had become a more central access point for pupils.

The second Ngatimoti school was built in 1923 on land bought from the Daniells' family and opened on 5 February, 1924. It was set between Alf Daniells' general store and the current WWII Memorial Hall, with Lawrence (Tod) Heath's smithy just across the road by the Orinoco River. The new school site was a chilly one, shaded by bush on the north-western side and Mrs Beatrice Daniell provided hot milk for warming malted drinks given to the school chlildren at morning breaks during the frosty winters. When Ruth Guy (who took over from her father in 1921) retired as postmistress in 1927, the Post Office moved from the Guy home and was attached to Daniells' store as a separate room. Later a telephone exchange was built in the same area. The Ngatimoti library also made a shift to the store. All these services are long gone, with the Post Office being the last to go in 1978. Tod Heath shifted his home and smithy across the road close to the Memorial Hall site and in the 1930s put a couple of bowsers out front dispensing "Big Tree Benzine", but the first dedicated garage/workshop and petrol station was opened by Jim Moore in 1948 on the banks of the Motueka River at the
junction of Waiwhero Road and the Motueka River Valley Highway. It went through the hands of several owners, who all struggled to make it pay its way. [22] 

"Little Flick" (seen here at the Ngatimoti Peninsula Bridge)
served the Motueka Valley community faithfully
until finally retired around 2002 
Owned by John Holdaway when we moved to the district, it was manned by John and his band of merry mechanics (Ralph Stringer and former garage owner, Paul Brereton) and had a small store attached which often proved a lifesaver, but sadly, it too eventually proved uneconomic to run and had closed down by the early 1990s. A more recent attempt in 2009 to reopen the old general store was welcomed, but this turned out to be a short-lived venture. After the garage closed down, the spot at the junction of the Motueka Valley Highway and Waiwhero Road became home for the Ngatimoti Volunteer Rural Fire Force and for several years housed their versatile wee Landover fire-engine, known to all as "Liitle Flick", until a purpose-built Fire Station on Greenhill Road was opened adjacent to the Ngatimoti School in 2002, complete with big new fire-engine.

A more recent flood in 1983 as seen from the old one-way Black Bridge.
John Holdaway's service station & store to the right with the Ngatimoti War Memorial Hall centre. 
First of three memorable floods during our first decade in the area, followed by others in 1986 and 1990.

The old one-way Black Bridge approaching the junction of Waiwhero Road and the Motueka Valley Highway was replaced in 2009, and  several years later an even older bridge was finally (and quite literally) sidelined. Known as the Double or Right-Angled Bridge, it crossed  Bogie Creek at the first bend on the River Valley Highway heading into Motueka from the Memorial Hall junction. It was first mentioned in 1864, when it marked the end of any track or cart way to Pangatotara. Ever since then Ngatimoti residents had been negotiating that narrow, diabolically tight bend in a wide range of vehicles and with varying degrees of success, requiring multiple repairs to both vehicles and bridge. That sharp turn was completely realigned, and a gently sweeping curve with a large culvert named Bogie Creek Bridge has taken its place, though the old bridge can still be seen lurking off to the side. A small ceremony held in the rain on the morning of 21 May 2015 celebrated the reopening.

Now vanished but still remembered, is the old rubbish dump on what was then Smiths' farm just past Earthquake Spur on Waiwhero Road, for many years the local "recycling centre". Every man and his dog went there to dump their rubbish, then rummage blithely around amidst the junk looking for, and often finding, treasures to take home in exchange - no worries in those days about Health & Safety! Further down Waiwhero Road, past the Waiwhero cemetery and heading towards the Moutere Highway, was a large hillock of sawdust on the left-hand side, a great place to take the kids with buckets and spades and have fun collecting organic matter for the garden. It was a leftover from the Baigents' sawmill which operated there between 1938 and 1966, and in 1949 was the scene of an earlier disastrous fire resulting from an out-of-control burn-off, which claimed the life of mill manager David Horrell. [23] The remains of an old cottage (now gone) still stood then on the opposite side of the road, sole survivor of a row of homes originally built to house mill-workers. The original road still leads into a forestry block (now owned by Carter, Holt, Harvey) but of the mill itself nothing remains, and even the old signpost labelled "Mill Road", which stood as a reminder for years, has since disappeared.

Timber stacked for drying at Baigents' Waiwhero sawmill
with Dud Gee's loaded Bedford in front.

The 1889 schoolhouse was still used for many years after its life as a school ended, becoming both Ngatimoti's de facto public hall and community meeting room, after being bought from the Education Board by the Ngatimoti community for this purpose in 1925. A board of trustees was set up to oversee its running. It was finally demolished just before the War Memorial Hall opened in 1953. All trace of that first school has now disappeared, although the schoolmaster's old house still stands in the same spot and is home to local resident, Bob Vincent. The schoolmaster's house passed into private hands in 1932, when the Education Board put it up for tender and it went to Will J. Stevens, a Boer War veteran and carpenter by trade, who first moved to the area from Tadmor with his family in 1924. 

The Ngatimoti school made a third move in 1954 to its current site on the corner of Greenhill Road and the Motueka Valley Highway. It was built on the 5 acre section which had formerly been the retirement property of John and Penelope (nee Wallis) McGaveston.The McGavestons' large homestead, known as "Rathgar", was demolished but three rooms were spared, converted and live on today as the Ngatimoti school hall. In 1965 the Orinoco School closed, and the school bus service transported its pupils daily to the Ngatimoti School instead. Rather ironically, when Alexander White was asked to donate land for the Orinoco School back in 1893, that canny Scotsman suggested then that it woud be cheaper to transport the children to the Ngatimoti School daily than set up a side school, a proposal scoffed at by the Education Board of the day.

Incidentally, the first Pokororo School, established in 1880, definitely had its beginnings in a raupo-thatched mud whare belonging to local landowner Robert Pattie (later better known as a Riwaka settler), with a young man called Evan Satchell as teacher.  Three years later a wooden school was erected on the terrace near the Motueka River, with Elizabeth (Lizzie) Alexander as teacher for 25 children, follwed by Lydia Bradley. This school burned down in 1898 and was replaced. In 1914 the Pokororo school was moved to the mouth of the Graham River, where it was used until 1939, after which the pupils were bussed to the second Ngatimoti School at Black Bridge. The old Pokororo school was pulled down in 1952 and replaced on the same site by the current Pokororo Hall. [24]

Pokororo School class of 1893-4
Teacher, Miss Lydia M. Bradley, at far right.

And our "school mud-rooms" mystery? At first glance it doesn't seem feasible - it's clear that both the 1868 and 1889 buildings belonging to the first Ngatimoti school were built on the same site, close to, but not at the Young/Remnant homeplace. Best guess? That those early mud-rooms were probably built by George and Henry Young, perhaps to house their store and mail room .Over 70-odd years of occupation by the Remnant family, it would have been all too easy to add confusion to the tale by conflating the first schoolmaster with the first school. However, the answer may lie in an old report saying that everyone was so keen to get going (well, the parents, anyway), that classes actually began a year ahead of the official opening of the Ngatimoti School - before the schoolroom even had a floor or chimney. It being unlikely that anyone would set up class in a building still under construction, maybe we can give credence to the theory that schoolmaster Henry Young taught his first lessons to the children of Ngatimoti in the Young brothers' mud storerooms.

The view from our gate 60-odd years ago
Fred Biggs puts out the cream can for collection.

Update: As of January 2016 a further 5 hectares of land was sold to neighbours Steve Anderson and Kath Nauta, whose home lies behind St James Church. This brings our farm down to a 13ha rump of George Young's old Section 64. - approximately 32 acres.

1)  Kennington, A.S. (1978) The Awatere: A District and its People. Ch. 6 Pioneering Times, 1850-1900. Pg 100, Cobb Dwellings. Blenheim, NZ: Marlborough County Council.

2) Government Notices: List of Persons eligible to vote for the Electoral District of Motueka Colonist, 14 April, 1865, pg 2. It's possible that they are the George & H. Young recorded as travelling together on the passenger manifest of the ship "Cornwall" during its 1853 voyage from England to New Zealand. This ship also carried other passengers associated with Ngatimoti -Decks, Salisburys and Vyvyans.

3) Whelan, Helen. Landowners and Residents of the Motueka Valley. (Unpublished ms.)

4) Salisbury, J. Neville (2006) Bush, Boots and Bridle Tracks. The Salisburys: Pioneers of the Motueka and Aorere Valleys. Ch VIII, pg. 78. Auckland, NZ: J. Neville Salisbury.
Describes the wearisome 16-hour journey by bullock-drawn dray from Motueka to Pangatotara made by William Marshall and his family in the summer of 1864. In the afternoon the tired party reached "George and Henry Young's log hut on the roadside. There they received a warm welcome, were given a good meal with plenty of tea, and rested before taking to the road again".

5) Woodley, Mary, The Moravian Settlement (Unpublished ms)
"There is no Christianity without community." The ill-fated Waiwhero community was based on the ideals and teachings espoused by 18th century Protestant reformer, Count Nicholas Ludwig von Zinzendorf. "Mr Griffin lost all he had invested and Father came out a broken-down old man," commented Lewis Bryant Jnr later. J.G. Deck also suffered, losing both his first and second wives there, along with his youngest son.
6) Oral history: Rex and Jenny Biggs

7) Whelan, Helen. Dictionary of Ngatimoti Biography (Unpublished ms.)

8) Brereton, C.B. (1947) No Roll of Drums. Wellington, NZ: A.H.& A.W. Reed. Ch. 1 A Blazer of Trails, pp 11-25. (The story of the pioneering Salisbury brothers)

9) Important Subdivision of the Well-known and Valuable Woodstock Estate near Ngatimoti
Colonist, 7 November, 1905. Advertisements, pg 4

10) Kennington, The Awatere, Ch. 4 The Awatere Sheep Runs, pg 65

11) Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Nelson, Westland and Marlborough Districts] (1906)
  Ngatimoti - see entry for James W. Wills.

12) The Flood at Motueka
Nelson Evening Mail, 12 February, 1877.
See also: February 1877, South Island Flooding (1877-02-03)
NZ Historic Weather Events Catalog, NIWA/Taihoro Nukurangi

13) Whelan, Dictionary of Ngatimoti Biography

14) Colonist 28 May, 1872: Motueka

15) Waimea County Council Minutes: Objection noted from John Guy re "School Hill" deviation through Guy land. Colonist, 8 November, 1901

16) Colonist, 10 July, 1868. Government Notices

17) Colonist, 22 October, 1877. Advertisments.
     Tenders invited for building an addition to the Ngatimoti school-room

18) Colonist, 18 November, 1870, pg 1. Advertisements
        Wanted, a Teacher for Ngatimoti School
19) Nelson Evening Mail, 11 September, 1889: Ngatimoti

21) Nelson Evening Mail, 3 September, 1893: Education Board
Proposal to shift Ngatimoti Schoolhouse to Orinoco

22) Beatson, Kath & Whelan, Helen (1993, 2nd ed. 2003) The River Flows On: Ngatimoti Through Flood and Fortune. Motueka, NZ: Buddens Bookshop. Ch.17 Other Services, pp 68-69

23) Munro, Ian, ed. (1999) Back Then...threads from Motueka's past. Motueka NZ: Published by
Motueka High School See Waiwhero Sawmill by Derilene Aston, pp 12-13.

24)  Ibid. Ch. 23 Six Little Schools, pp. 94-97

* Attempts to trace the ancestry of Ngatimoti's first schoolmaster, Henry Young, are easily muddled by the fact that there were two different unrelated setlers named Henry Young living in the Motueka area, the schoolmaster who lived at Ngatimoti with his brother George and another. This other Henry Young (1803-1881) was an upper class gentleman who was a rising star in the East India Company's Civil Service as a judge in the Bombay Presidency, but abandoned the world of commerce after finding religion and joining the Plymouth Brethren, much to the dismay of his family. His father, Sir Samuel Young, was created 1st Baronet of Formosa Place in the County of Berkshire in 1813. This Henry Young was an old friend of James George Deck's from back in their days of service in India and Deck may well have followed him to New Zealand. His daughter Emily Baring Young later married Deck's son, Dr John Feild Deck. The Young family returned to England in 1859. They came back to New Zealand in 1861 and farmed in Southland, but later removed to Australia, where in 1880 his sons established the highly successful Fairymead Sugar Company in Queensland. Daughters Florence and Emily with her husband John, who were members of the Open Brethren, became involved in missionary work in China, Queensland and the Pacific Islands with the South Seas Evangelical Mission..

** The incorrect claim that land for the first Ngatimoti school was donated by Walter Guy appears to have originated with the Ngatimoti School Centennial booklet published in 1968. Although Walter Guy donated land for St James Church, the land for the school was in fact donated by George Young. It seems that there was initially some difficulty in getting the school acre donated by George Young transferred to the Education Board after Christopher Remnant bought Section 64, and Walter Guy offered an alternative site. Because the situation regarding the conveyance of the school acre was resolved, Walter Guy's offer was never taken up.

Further Reading

Beatson, Kath & Whelan, Helen, The River Flows On: Ngatimoti Through Flood and Fortune. Motueka, NZ: Buddens Bookshop.
The most accessible definitive history of Ngatimoti's development and community services.

Beatson, C.B. (Pat) (1992) The River, Stump and Raspberry Garden: Ngatimoti as I remember.
Nelson, NZ: Nikau Press.

Lineham, Peter J. (1977) There we found Brethren: a history of the assemblies of Brethren in New Zealand. Palmerston North, NZ: G.P.H. Society.

Bade, S. Northcote (November 1958)  Early Housing in New Zealand, with particular reference to the Nelson and Cook Strait Area. Nelson Historical Society Journal, 1:3

Note on Military Settlers

An unsually high proportion of the earliest Ngatimoti settlers were ex-British Indian army men. This was no coincidence. The Nelson Provincial Council, set up in 1853, was concerned for the safety of new immigrants trying to establish homesteads out in rural areas. Fears aroused by the Wairau Affray ten years earlier died hard, but although there was a sizable Māori community in Motueka itself, Te Rauparaha's shock troops had cleared out any original inhabitants of the Motueka Valley very effectively by the time European pioneers arrived. The Nelson Provincial Council encouraged naval and military officers on full or half pay, either in Her Majesty's Service or with the East India Company, who had retired or obtained a discharge, to reside in the Province of Nelson, with the understanding that they would stay for at least two years in the area and be prepared to defend vulnerable settlers. It's likely that they were also expected to act in an unofficial role as representatives of the law. To this end, they were offered inducements by way of land grants or cash. Several settled at Ngatimoti, drawn to a large degree to this area by previous friendship or acquaintance with James George Deck, and many of those joined the Plymouth Brethren movement.

See Beatson, The River Flows On, Ch.5, Military Settlers, pg  20.

Photo credits

A cob cottage at Mt. Gladstone in the 1880s. Photographer Alexander McKay
From Kennington, The Awatere, pg. 81 

Mao of Sections 63 & 64 ca 18, Block X, Motueka Survey Dustrict, ca

Timber slab hut on Waiwhero Road, Ngatimoti, 1867

Photographer Francis Leslie Drew, an absentee owner who had land in the Waiwhero area but only visited in the holidays. Courtesy Mr E. Stevens.

Bullock dray being dribven along atrack i through New Zealand bush [ca.1867]

Artist Francis Edward Nairn (1819-1910).

Old Remnant homestead and converted Biggs' family bungalow. Frances ("Chum"), Mrs Fred Biggs, stands in front of the old house.
Courtesy Biggs family

John Park Salisbury, in his middle years.

From Salisbury, J. Neville, Bush, Boots and Bridle Tracks, pg. 273

A river runs through it... The Motueka Valley

John McFadgen

"Flaxbourne", first homestead. Taken from an 1851 watercolour by "Flaxbourne"'s first owner, Frederick Weld.

From Kennington, The Awatere, pg 32

Christopher Remnant's 140 year old pear trees

John McFadgen

James (Jim) Williams Wills III with his wife Ellen (nee Starnes) and family

Nelson Provincial Museum/Guy Collection, ref. 315237

Canoe on the Motueka River,  passing the Brereton family's homestead at Pokororo.
Artist unknown, possibly J.P. Salisbury
Used as the cover for C.B. Brereton's "No Roll of Drums", an informal history of Ngatimoti's settlers.

Aerial cage across the Motueka River

Packing apples at "Roseneath", ca 1910

Nelson Provincial Museum/Guy Collection,  ref. 315080

Home block at 864 Waiwhero Road June 1981
John McFadgen

Bob & Doris (nee Remnant) Gray's home next door.

John McFadgen

View from our gate 35 years ago.

John McFadgen

Schoolmaster's house, built 1878, alongside the 1889 Ngatimoti Schoolhouse ca. 1900.

Provenance unknown, ex "Ngatimoti and Consolidated Schools Centennial Booklet 1868-1968", pg. 9

The original Orinoco Road up "Old School Hill"

Tyree Studio Collection, Nelson Provincial Museum Permanent Collection, ref. 181918

The Guy family at "Sunny Brae", 1910.

Nelson Provincial Museum/Guy Collection, ref. 315235

The Golden Weed - harvest time at Fred Biggs farm

Courtesy Biggs family

Workers at Fred Biggs' tobacco drying kiln.

Courtesy Biggs family

Opening of the new Ngatimoti schoolhouse, 6 September 1889.

Tyree Studio Collection/Nelson Provincial Museum Permanent Collection, ref. 179224

Close neighbours- Sunny Brae" and the Ngatimoti schoolhouse opposite each other on Waiwhero Road, Ngatimoti. The school section can be seen surrounded by Jim Remnant's farmland. Photographed by Walter Guy from Remnant's Hill, which ran the length of both Sections 63 & 64.

Nelson Provincial Museum/Guy Collection, ref. 315125

St James Anglican Church and the Ngatimoti War Memorial.

John McFadgen

Jim Remnant's apple orchard.

Guy Collection/Nelson Provincial Museum Permanent Collection, ref. 315074.

"Little Flick" at thre Ngatimoti Peninsula Bridge. Was replaced by a new, bigger fire engine at the same time as the new Ngatimoti Fire Station was built around 2002.

Timber stacked for drying at Baigent's Waiwhero Sawmill

From Back Then..Threads from Motueka's Past
Waiwhero Sawmill by Derilene Aston p 13. Original photo courtesy Mrs E. Horrell.

1983 flood as seen from the old one-way Black Bridge (replaced in 2009 by a modern two-lane version)

From Beatson, K & Whelan, H. The River Flows On, pg 134

Pokororo School. Class of 1893-4
H. Whelan, unpublished ms.

Fred Biggs putting the cream can out at the gate for collection ca. 1950s

Courtesy Biggs family