Sunday, October 16, 2016

Thomas Godsall Brougham: Recollections of early Motueka and Lower Moutere.

An Oral History

(With some notes about Thomas Brougham (1849-1939) and his family)
Additions and annotations by Anne McFadgen

First settlers (with their families) : Charles Thorp - Capt. Edward Fearon - Capt. Thomas Thoms - Capt. Frederick Moore - John Brougham - John & Stephen Eginton - James Bradley - John Gillett - Richard Maund – Capt. William Williams (Deputy Harbour-Master & Pilot at Collingwood for many years and Thomas' uncle by marriage.)
(Thorps, Fearons, Greenwoods, Gilletts and Egintons all lived down what is now Thorp Street and were all early and keen members of the Anglican Church. Both Dr Greenwood and Charles Thorp were layreaders.).

Charles Heaphy - James Swinton Spooner - Sharpe (possibly John Sharp) and (?) Lloyd.  These were NZ Company surveyors who all lived in Motueka for a short time.

David Drummond - Captain Davidson - John Staples - John Stule Park -  Benjamin Allen - John Noden - Thomas Atkins - John William Chamberlain - Edwin Hare Dashwood of Lower Moutere -  Dr. Danforth and Mrs Sarah Greenwood - Alex Wilkie - James (Jim) Lock - Isaac Haynes - Walter Guy - George Murray- Nathaniel Morse - William Rogers - the last five all of Lower Moutere. The last 3 (Murray, Morse & Rogers) had the place (occupied in Tom Brougham's time by the Morrisons) before Dashwood, (They were the first Europeans to farm at Lower Moutere) This place was lived in by Mr Alfred Edwards' family for years.  (This was Section 201, now on Central Road, also known as “Grove Farm”, where John E. Salisbury built a home known as the “Grange” in 1911 - this house is still in use today. Originally a loop of the Moutere River wound right past Section 201 and it was possible to take a boat right up to the property.)

Dashwood (later the 7th Baronet Dashwood of West Wycombe Park in England) who had Morrisons' place brought out the first pheasants - three in number. They escaped and bred and as a result hundreds of pheasants were shot as game.

The Allen family lived between Greenwoods and where Thorps‘ place now is. Peter Starnes was one of Lower Moutere 's first settlers. (TGB probably means Stephen Starnes, who with his brother George was the first Starnes family member to settle at Lower Moutere. The Starnes brothers were cousins of Walter Guy, who came to Nelson on the "Larkins" in 1849 and soon after settled at Lower Moutere next to "Grove Farm".)

A man named Beresford (Samuel, a shoemaker) was an early settler in Motueka- his daughter, Sarah Beresford, married Charles Green Snr. (for whom Green Lane in Motueka is named.)

Another early settler, Capt. Wright, lived where the aerodrome now is. A man named Whitehead had the place first and Capt. Wright married his widow.

Mr & Mrs Park lived at the 'Hen and Chickens' in Greenwood Street (so called because of the number of outbuildings on site). He grew the first apples in the district and for many years they were called 'Parks sort'' although the real name was called David's apple. When the tree first bore fruit there was sufficient to make an apple pie for the family but instead of this being done Mr. Park distributed the apples among his neighbours saying to each one "Here's an apple to make a dumpling for you".It was an illustration of the friendly and neighbourly spirit prevailing in the early days.

Mr Tom Brougham later grew the David's apple in the Moutere and a tree would grow 30 to 40 bushels.

Dr. and Mrs Greenwood and family lived in a log house in Tudor Street for a while and later acquired the 'Grange'- now owned by Mr. Edgar T. Pratt.

Dr Greenwood was a Police Magistrate and a member of the Nelson Provincial Council and his duties took him away from home very often. Mrs Greenwood was a wonderful little woman - one of nature’s ladies. At that time there were no schools and she educated her ten children-boys and girls. She had absolute command over them. Sometimes they were boisterous , but she only had to hold up her hand and say "Now children", and was given instant obedience.

Mrs Greenwood played the piano and her son Alfred played the fiddle, would sometimes go to the Moutere and play for the folk there to dance on the green in front of where Mr. Dick Brougham now lives. Alfred Greenwood returned to England and became a musician of some note.

 Mrs Greenwood would always endeavour to point out the sunny side of circumstances to her children. Her daughter Margaret complained that she had to lace her boots with flax.  "Why Margaret”, her mother would reply, “you can have a fresh piece of flax to lace your boots with every day but if you were in London, you could not afford to buy new ones so often".

John Brougham, his wife and two sons came out from England on the Martha Ridgeway and arrived in Nelson about February or March 1842. (In fact 7th April 1842) One boy, John, died during the voyage.

Miss Franklin , afterwards his second wife arrived a week or two beforehand in the Lloyds. She was at one time a companion help to Mrs Greenwood.

John Brougham poisoned the first rabbits in the district. At the time he was in Nelson and was offered the job as gaoler by the Police Magistrate, Mr Thompson.In those days a Government job was something to be jumped at, so John Brougham sais he would take the job if he was competent. "I have some rabbits there straving", said the Magistrate, pointing to them. "Give them a feed, will you?"

It was spring time and the place was in the vicinity of the Salt Water Bridge and growing there was an abundance of Tutu showing young green shoots and Brougham seeing  it thought it was just the thing to give the rabbits so gathered some in a bag to feed them. It was their one and only feed -they were blown up like balloons and died of Tutu poisoning. In consequence John Brougham was not considered competent to take up the position as gaoler.

Capt. Thoms, an early settler, became mental and John Brougham acted as valet to him. They would sometimes go shooting together. Brougham would have charge of the guns and would put powder but no shot in the Captain’s weapon. He would wait until two birds were close together, point them out and say, "You shoot that one, Captain, and I'll shoot the other". always however aiming at the Captain's bird and bringing it down, then the latter would say ,"What, Brougham- missed again!".

John Brougham and David Drummond worked together in saw pits. On one occasion Drummond was using a bill hook to cut a supplejack high above himself when the billhook slipped and split his nose right down the middle. The wound was bound using his lunch cloth- no other dressing being available and that afternoon he and Brougham went pigeon shooting.

Later on they worked in Capt Moore’s sawmill (probably in fact Capt Thoms' sawmill - Moore, who lived next door,  is known to have worked there) in the Staples Street property which stood somewhere near the present sheds. The water to the mill was brought from the river- then running at the foot of Parker Street through a ditch cut through Auty's property and leading to the mill. The water emptied into the Blind River for many years-now called the Swamp.

Thomas Brougham was born in Rumbolds’ old house on the 9th December 1849. This house was on the corner of High and Staples Street . (This house, known as "Rose Cottage" and later "Woodend", was owned in the early 1850s by first Thomas Vyvyan, then his brother-in-law John Park Salisbury, whose father Edward lived there for a time. It was then sold to Henry Young, an ex-East India Company judge and friend of Plymouth Brethren evangelist James George Deck. The Youngs enlarged the house and added a second storey. The Rev. Bagshaw then lived there before it was sold to the Rumbolds.) Tom Brougham's mother was of a most hospitable nature and her home became a half way house for people going to and from Riwaka. (not surprising – John Brougham operated the place as unlicensed premises!)

When Thomas was six or seven years of age the Brougham family moved to Lower Moutere to the place now occupied by Mr and Mrs Bensemann. (The gateway to the Brougham home was on what is currently Robinson Road and marked by two oak trees)

His father John once owned a boat but he unfortunately lost it. Thomas, then 13 years old, had to leave school and go to work. At one time he and one of his brothers (Edward) worked at Ngatimoti and they walked there from the Moutere. When he was a young man a dancing class was commenced at the Moutere and he acted as secretary / treasurer and musician combined. The music was supplied by a fiddle and the musician could dance with a partner and fiddle at the same time.

Thomas Brougham would at times drive over to Takaka and Collingwood from Motueka in a light trap drawn by a tandem team of ponies conveying passengers and sometimes a theatrical party. The journey would take a full day there and a full day back. On the way to Collingwood the Parapara River which was unbridged had to be crossed and dangerous it was, and it necessary always to wait for the tide. A number of lives were lost in that river in the early days.

Tom Brougham was a breaker-in of horses and he attributed his success to firmness, kindness and common sense.

Brougham's Post Office Hotel, Motueka.
Pit sawing was the chief means of existence in those days. Timber was sawn for 3/6d per 199 ft and was freighted to Nelson in open sailboats of 3-4 tons loaded from the beach to which the timber had been conveyed from the sawpits by bullock drays. The time taken to sail to Nelson was dependent on the wind, anything from 2- 25 hours.
Most of the settlers in Motueka economized by building their own houses with slabs of wood, which they battened inside.

The first port was at Manuka Bush in the Kumaras. The Maoris would be employed in assisting to unload the boats when they arrived and would be paid in goods for their services. On one occasion the payment was made in rice which they cooked in a go-ashore pot. It was not properly cooked and they ate large quantities which swelled very much after being eaten, causing the Maoris great discomfort and giving them the appearance of poisoned pups.

In those days the Maoris were still at or not far removed from the cannibalistic stage in which they had been accustomed to kill and eat their enemies and drink their blood. To kill a pig in the ordinary way they considered a great waste of blood and to overcome this they would carry a squealing pig to Staples' swamp and drown it first.

The Moutere valley was covered in bush from Tennants to Braeburn. There were sawpits in the district also. Jim Lock and Lou Francois had one just above Braeburn.

The Company ditch was formed partly to give employment to men and partly to open up the country by forming a road with the spoil from the ditch.

After the New Zealand Company broke up hard times came. On one occasion potatoes which had been planted were dug up for food as the boat the settlers depended for their supplies did not arrive when expected.

It was said that some people became so weak due to the scarcity of food that two men were required to pull up a dock root. For brewing tea the early settlers used a shrub called Kawakawa. It was rather rare and had a pungent taste.

People walked many miles as they had no means of transport. Mrs Don Drummond who lived on the back road at Braeburn in the home now occupied by her granddaughter Mrs Alec Franklin would walk from there to Wilkie's store in Motueka to do her shopping and walk back home.

The first carriage was owned by Capt. Fearon and consisted of a sledge with a packing case attached on which sat the passenger, generally Mrs Fearon, and drawn by two bullocks driven by Capt. Fearon walking alongside. One Sunday they called on Mrs Thoms and took her for a drive.

The first road to Motueka was formed by digging two ditches a certain distance apart and throwing the spoil into the centre to form the road which was left in that condition until gravel could be afforded. The first gravel was obtained from a pit at the back of the present powerhouse. Another pit was on the property at the Moutere now occupied by Major D W Talbot. Another pit was near Mrs Maurice Staples' house. It was a bank of gravel in the roadway around which the road went until gravel was taken away to bring the bank to road level.

Later farming became the chief means of making a living.  The ground would grow 10-12 tons of potatoes to the acre. Boats conveyed the potatoes to the West Coast and to Australia.

In the early days all mowing was done by hand with a scythe. To mow a quarter of an acre was an ordinary days work for a man which could take from sunrise to sunset. It was said that one man named William Limmer drank 5 gallons of beer and reaped two acres afterwards.

All the wheat from the Motueka side was taken across the river at Douglas' ford to Mickell’s mill in Riwaka to be ground into flour. A man named Freeman used to grind wheat for his own use in a coffee mill , singing "Rule Britannia'" while he worked.

The Reverend Butt was the first Anglican minister in Motueka. The Reverend Tudor after whom Tudor Street was named  had a night school for young men who had not the opportunity for getting education otherwise.

The Reverend Poole  lived at the Moutere for a while at the back of Wildmans' place and taught Maoris at the Whakarewa orphanage. The place was given by the Maori  Rewi for education and advancement of Maori and white children of this and adjacent islands. Some of the original flooring, Matai-red pine, of the first building was used in the new building, opened by the Bishop of Nelson, Bishop Hilliard at the end of October 1936.

In those early days a bridle track was the only road to Takaka. It started from the end of the road leading from the  Riwaka bridge which now branches to the left to Takaka and to the right to Kaiteriteri. The road to Takaka was surveyed by Henry Alexander Tarrant, a good man at his job. The work to form the road was let in contracts of  £500-600. The first contract was started about 1888.

Note: Tom Brougham's recollections, based on his own and his parents' memories, were originally made available on the now defunct  Edwards Family website formerly run by Shon R. Edwards.

Some notes on Thomas Godsall Brougham
and his parents John Brougham & Maria Emily nee Franklin

Mr Thomas Godsall Brougham (known as both "Tom" and "Bunkie") was born in Motueka and lived and worked around the district all his life. His father John Brougham, a farm labourer, was born c. 1812 in Blackmore, Kildare, Ireland, and died 1898 in Lower Moutere, NZ, He emigrated to Nelson on the Martha Ridgeway in 1841 with his first wife, Maria nee Hughes, and sons James, aged 7, and John, aged 3. John died during the voyage.

The first Maria (nee Hughes) died in Motueka in October 1845, aged 34, and John Brougham married his second wife, Maria Emily Franklin, in Nelson, on September 2, 1847. They had five sons and a daughter: Edward (1848-1937), Thomas Godsall (1849-1939), Charles John (1851-1929), Henry Osmond (Harry) (1853-1923), Graham (1856-1938) and Emily Sarah (1861-1934) AM.

Like all his siblings apart from older stepbrother James, Thomas attended the Lower Moutere School (first opened on its current site in 1857). After leaving school at the age of 13, Thomas went to Ngatimoti where he with his elder brother Edward used to cut timber. It is likely that it was there that he may have met his future wife, Caroline Jane Ellen (Nellie) Heath, who lived in that area.  

Caroline (born c. 1852 in England) was the daughter of Thomas and Anne (nee Barnfield) Heath. They had five children. Thomas Heath was born at Upton, Gloucestershire England in 1825. He probably came out with other members of the Heath family in 1861 including his second wife Fanny Jane on the ship Sir George Pollock.. Thomas died at Pangatotara in 1875 and his widow remarried to William Spicer. Thomas Heath is recorded as holding a Crown Grant for Section 47, Square 7 Motueka Valley. (Fanny Jane grew cantakerous in old age and disinherited her daughters, convinced that they didn't pay her enough attention. After her death the family contested her will and Tom Godsall was called as a witness.  See "Nelson Evening Mail", 5 March 1914, p 3 - Supreme Court: In the Estate of Fanny Spicer, Deceased.)

Caroline and Tom Brougham were married in Motueka in 1876 and had three daughters, Jessie Medora (1877-1951) m. Walter Thomas Good, Laura Olive (1880-1897) died unmarried at age 17 and Florence Mabel (1882-1967) m. James Albert Wallace. A son Robert Graham Franklin was born 1879 but died shortly after birth.  (Caroline’s sister, Emma Jane Heath, married Thomas’ brother Harry Brougham. She died in 1909 and he later married a second time to Isabella Ellen Healey). The Broughams were proprietors of the Post Office Hotel (previously known as the Sportsmans Arms) and then the Upper Moutere Hotel for a while prior to the turn of the century.

In later years Thomas and Caroline retired to the house now owned by Mr and Mrs Drury at the back of where Woolworths now stands (in 2016, this would be the block of shops directly opposite the Westpac Bank on High Street, Motueka), the house having been moved back from its original site close to the street frontage.

 Thomas's second name Godsall was taken after his maternal grandmother’s maiden name  - Mary Ann Godsall (1803-1875) - and can be seen in other parts of the Family Tree.  Thomas and Caroline are both buried in the older part of the Motueka cemetery along with their daughter Laura Olive who died aged 17 in 1897, the plot marked by a single tall monument.

John Brougham

Mr J Brougham (1809-1898)
John Brougham was born c. 1809-11 of Edward and Mary (nee Knowles) Brougham in Co. Kildare, Ireland. On 28 Sep 1834 at St. Michaels All Saints Church Ashton-under-Lyne, Manchester England he married Maria Hughes who was born  c. 1809 -10. Two children were born  of this marriage. James c.1835 and John 1838. These dates were deduced from the shipping papers of the Martha Ridgeway

On the 12 Oct 1841 the Broughams filed application no. 4377 to the New Zealand Company to emigrate to New Zealand . This application was made from their home in Hyde Lane, Cheshire. Their application was successful and they set sail on the Martha Ridgeway on the 6 Nov. 1841 from Liverpool. John's  occupation was given as labourer.(ref. NZ Co. Passenger List NZCo 34/5 page 216a.) These records are held by National archives Wellington.

The Martha Ridgeway berthed at Nelson Haven on 7th Apr 1842 after an uneventful journey except for an outbreak of dysentery which claimed the lives of four adults and seven of the ninety nine children on board. One of these children was very likely the Broughams' youngest child John, who is thought to have died during the voyage - no records of him exist from that date onwards.

The first official mention of the Broughams in New Zealand was a reference in the 'Nelson Examiner' in early 1844 that John Brougham of section 204 Moutere Bluffs Motueka was on the annual jury list. His name appeared on this list until 1855 when Motueka was no longer listed in the Nelson Jury district . On the 5 June 1844 John signed a petition to the Governor General asking him not to avenge the deaths at the Wairau massacre and his name did not appear among those who volunteered  to chase and try to capture Te Rauparaha.

On the 30 Oct 1845 Johns' first wife Maria, then aged 34, died and was the first person buried in St. Thomas' Anglican church in Motueka (today Pioneer Park on the corner of Thorp & Fearon Streets). This record is held in office of the Bishop of Nelson .

 On 2nd Feb 1847 John married Maria Emily Franklin aged 22, who was born in London, and was the second daughter of Benjamin and Mary Ann (nee Godsall) Franklin. Benjamin died in 1833. Mary Ann remarried to Richard Maund on the 5 Jun 1836, there were no children of this second marriage.

Mary Ann Maund along with her two daughters Sarah Ann, Maria Emily and sons Robert 13, Thomas 11, and Alexander 9, all sailed on the notorious Lloyds leaving from Gravesend on the 11 Sept 1841 and arriving  at Nelson  Haven  on the 22 Feb 1842. These were all Benjamin Franklins' children.

Richard had sailed earlier on the Whitby as part of an exploration group some four months earlier.

 John and Maria Brougham had their first child Edward in 1848 followed on 9 Dec 1849 by another son Thomas Godsall, Charles, John b. 1851, Henry b. 1853 and Graham b. 1856 and their only daughter Emily Sarah, born in 1861.

On 21st  Apr 1849 according to the Nelson Examiner, John was one of the many who signed a petition to Parliament regarding the settlers Entitlement to Properties Bill. This Bill was to try and obtain title to the land they had earlier purchased from the New Zealand Company.
Details of John Brougham, and  his family are contained in a copy NZ Co.1849 census of the Nelson province.

In 1853 John was one of tthose who nominated Mr Charles Parker to represent Motueka on the Nelson Provincial Council - Parker was successful.

On 4th Apr 1855 the Crown Grant in favour of John Brougham was ready for issue. This was as a result of the petition on 21 Apr 1849.

         Obituary, Colonist, Nelson 10 Feb 1898. Death of an old settler.

"John Brougham who came to the colony on the Martha Ridgeway landed in Nelson in the early part of 1842 and in common with other settlers had to endure many hardships and struggles in the early history of the settlement. He was naturally a kind hearted man and always lived a retired and quiet life but did not make himself prominent in taking part in public matters but by his straight forward and honorable dealings he gained the respect of all he came in contact with.

Many years ago he became partially disabled through an accident and consequently was unable afterwards to cope with the struggles of life as formerly'. He joined the Oddfellows Society in Richmond prior to the Motueka Lodge being formed, but after the formation he withdrew and became a member at Motueka.
His remains will be interred in the old cemetery on Thurs 10th inst; He leaves six sons, one daughter and about 80 grandchildren.”

John lies under a headstone at the Pioneer Park Cemetery in Thorp St. Motueka, where his first wife also lies.

Maria Emily Franklin

Born in London ca 1825 and baptised at Holy Trinity Church in St Marylebone, not much of her life is known before 16 February 1842 when at the age of 15 she diembarked from the Lloyds at Nelson Haven along with her mother Mrs Mary Ann Maund, (formerly Franklin, nee Godsall) 35, her elder sister Sarah Ann 17, and brothers Robert 13, and Alexander 9. Thomas, 11, was listed as a passenger but according to the shipping papers held at NZ Archives Wellington he is not shown so we must assume he was one of the many of the unfortunate children to die at sea.

Following the death of her husband Benjamin Franklin in 1833,  Maria's mother remarried in 1836 to Richard Maund who had sailed on the Whitby as one of a survey party 4-5 months ahead of the main body of immigrants.  Some months after their arrival they made ttheir way to the Motuaka (Motueka) area and settled in the Moutere. Maria Emily was employed as a lady’s help to Mrs Greenwood in Motueka. (Her sister,  Sarah Ann, married widower Captain William A Williams in Motueka in 1848. Capt. Williams was later appointed harbourmaster and pilot for the port of Collingwood in 1858)

John Brougham who had sailed on the Martha Ridgeway with his first wife Maria (Hughes) and two sons, James and John (John died during the voyage), had also settled in the same area. Maria died 3 years after their arrival in 1845, and on the 2nd Feb 1847 John Brougham aged 35 married Maria Emily Franklin aged 21.

One can only wonder on the hardships these people endured starting out with very little in the way of home comforts and on land that at best could be described as being of poor quality, and mostly of a swampy nature.

Maria must have been a popular and friendly person (as described by her son Thomas Godsall Brougham) as her home became a half-way house for travellers between Riwaka and Motueka. John ran the place as an inn, though according to records he was not licensed to sell liquor.

John and Maria had 5 sons and a daughter- Edward, Thomas Godsall, John Charles, Henry, Graham and Emily Sarah. All these children attended the new school at Lower Moutere, thought to have opened early 1857.

In later years Maria Emily became crippled after a gander had attacked her and she would spend her days making quilts. She died on 10 October 1893 and was buried at the St Thomas' Churchyard on Thorp Street, Motueka. Her headstone has since disappeared, probably eroded over time.

Saturday, August 13, 2016

Captain Edward Fearon (1813-1869), “The King of Motueka".

They that go down to the sea in ships,
that do business in great waters;
These see the works of the Lord, and his wonders in the deep.
Edward Fearon (1813-1869)
Ship's captain, settler, pastoralist and Provincial Councillor.

Times were turbulent when one of Motueka’s earliest Pakeha pioneers arrived to take up his newly-bought block of land. Edward Fearon had barely pitched his tent and made a start on clearing his section when the Nelson district was thrown into a state of panic, fearing an imminent Maori uprising following the Wairau Affray of 17th June, 1843. Motueka was an isolated spot, covered in thick bush, with sea access only, a large resident Maori population and only a very few other widely scattered settlers in the vicinity.  A former ship’s captain well used to taking command and dealing with sudden crises, Fearon is credited with playing a significant part in calming local tensions. He went on to see the tiny settlement grow and prosper, and such was his influence and involvement in almost every aspect of the fledgling township’s affairs that fellow residents half-jokingly dubbed him the “King of Motueka”.
All Hallows, Bread Street, London.
Rebuilt after the Great Fire of London
by Sir Christopher Wren, it was
demolished in 1878.
The youngest son of Isaac Fearon and his wife Elizabeth (formerly Baty nee Hodgson), Edward Fearon was
born on 31 October 1813 at the family home on Shove Place, in the Parish of St John’s, Hackney, London. He was baptised by the Rev. W. Lucas at All Hallows, Bread Street, London, on 12 December 1813.
Edward’s parents were both natives of Cumberland, in the northern borderlands between England and Scotland, once the haunts of lawless Border Reivers and birthplace of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). Although a London-based merchant and stockbroker, his father Isaac Fearon was born on 24 July 1779 at Brigham, Cumberland, to yeoman farmer John Fearon and his wife Sarah (nee Mark). Both were Quakers and registered their son Isaac’s birth at the Carlisle Quaker Monthly Meeting. Mother Elizabeth was born to John and Judith (nee Pears) Hodgson in Carlisle on 1 January 1775 and baptised at St Mary’s Carlisle on 11 October 1776, along with her twin sister, Ann, who married Joseph Tinniswood in 1801.

Elizabeth Hodgson married Adam Baty at St Mary’s, Carlisle, on 18 March 1797. Their marriage was a short one as Adam died just a few years later, his estate recorded as being in administration at St Cuthbert’s, Carlisle, in 1800. On September 27, 1800, the widowed Elizabeth Baty remarried at St Leonard’s, Shoreditch, London, to Isaac Fearon of the Liberty of Norton Folgate. (2) A historic mercantile neighbourhood, Norton Folgate bordered London’s financial district.
Edward was the sixth in a family of seven. He had an older brother, John Hodgson (1801-1885)) and five sisters, Mary (1804-1854), Sarah (1805-1858), Frances Elizabeth (1808-1839), Emma Martin (1812-1849) and Elizabeth (1815-1828). Three other siblings hadn’t survived infancy: an earlier Elizabeth (1803-1804), James Sims (born and died 1807 aged 3 months) and Frederick William (1810-1811) (3)
Isaac Fearon appears to have become a practising Anglican, but maintained contact with Quaker family members. His connection to the Quaker network may in fact have helped him in his business interests, as Quaker merchants and bankers played a significant part in the City of London’s financial sector during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.  His youngest daughter, the second Elizabeth, was buried at the Friends’ cemetery in the Cumbrian Quaker stronghold of Maryport after her death at the age of thirteen, indicating that she was probably staying with Quaker relatives at the time.
Elizabeth Fearon (nee Ward)
Only three when his father Isaac died on 31st of January 1816 at the age of 37, Edward was nineteen when his mother died on the 9th of July 1832. Both parents were interred at the family’s church of choice, St John-at-Hackney, in London. Edward was sent to school but as a youth ran away to sea, where his abilities were soon recognised. He rose to become a Captain in the British Mercantile Marine (the equivalent of today’s Merchant Navy) and in his twenties commanded ships trading to North and South America, Cape Colony in South Africa and Australia. (4)

On 11 February 1840 Edward Fearon, master mariner, was married at St Olave Hart Street, Crutched Friars, London, to Elizabeth Ward. Baptised on 2 December 1811 at Crediton, Devon, Elizabeth was the oldest daughter of Thomas Ward and Elizabeth Huggins, who had married at Crediton on 24 November 1808.
The Wards were gentlemen farmers associated with “Langridge”, a farm situated in the rolling hills of Mid Devon, 3½ miles outside the market town of Crediton and described in 1871 when owned by Elizabeth’s oldest brother, Elias Tremlett Ward (1810-1874), as being 284 acres in size and employing 14 labourers. (“Langridge Farm still exists and under its "Langridge Organic" brand, is today in partnership with the Organic Delivery Company.)
Typical rolling farmland near Crediton, Devon.
Edward and his bride had a working honeymoon, rather more exciting than anticipated. Straight after their wedding ceremony they set sail on the “City of Edinburgh”, a 365-ton barque on the London to Sydney run with Captain Fearon in command, carrying a few passengers and a general cargo valued at £50,000. As she approached Australia, a ferocious storm of several days’ duration, described by the “Launceston Advertiser as a “perfect hurricane seldom equalled in these parts”, drove the ship well off course and tore away most of her rigging. Despite efforts to hold her with anchors, during the night of 11 July 1840 the “City of Edinburgh” was driven in the darkness onto a reef just off the shore of Settlement Point, Flinders Island. The ship was hastily abandoned and by the next day had disintegrated, with the coast seen to be “completely strewed with the wreck and her cargo”. It was party time for the locals, who gleefully plundered any goods worth salvaging. Bales of goods were broken open and casks of spirits broached, leaving “nearly every person on the settlement in a state of beastly intoxication”, according to one of the "City of Edinburgh'"s indignant erstwhile passengers. (5) Another ship, the "Ocean Queen", had been driven on to a beach close by and was able to be salvaged. Flotsam washed up from yet another ship indicated that a third unidentified vessel had suffered a less fortunate fate.

Ninteenth-century wooden barque.
Both the 'City of Edinburgh" and the "Thomas Sparks" were vessels of this type.
Elizabeth Fearon was with the "City of Edinburgh"'s passengers in the first of three longboats to set out for shore from the wrecked vessel. Family legend has it that after the boat was beached unsuccessful attempts were made to light a fire to guide the others to safety and Elizabeth, who with had done her hair up for the night in paper curls, saved the day by using her curling papers to get a flame started. (6) Although left with nothing but the clothes they stood up in, the entire ship’s company of twenty-two survived. They were given free return passage to England on a ship which on its way called in at New Zealand.
The Fearons were taken with what they saw of New Zealand and undaunted by their traumatic experience, the intrepid couple decided to settle there, very likely influenced by glowing promotional material circulated by the New Zealand Company. Unsanctioned by the British government, this commercial emigration enterprise had jumped the gun. Desperate to get underway ahead of the Crown's forthcoming annexation of New Zealand as a British colony, they had already set up a base in Wellington and a colony at New Plymouth. The Company's reckless haste and lack of organisation would later lead to calamitous misunderstandings with Maori over land ownership, and hardship for European settlers. 

"Embarking for the land of gold in hope:
Leaving Old England".
 Artist: Edward  Noyce (lithographer)
Having amassed a comfortable fortune during his successful career, Fearon retired from the sea and at the age of 29 emigrated to New Zealand. The Captain, his wife Elizabeth and two of her brothers, Thomas and John Ward, embarked on the New Zealand Company's ship “Thomas Sparks”, a barque of 497 tons, departing Gravesend on 27 July 1842. They travelled as Intermediate Class passengers at a cost of £250 each. Fearon was listed as an “improver”, a settler with sufficient funds to set up a profitable farm of his own and hopefully provide employment for others. Among the Cabin Class passengers was John Hursthouse, whose diary documents a fraught voyage which could have ended very badly indeed but for Captain Fearon’s intervention.

Captain Robert Sharp, master of the “Thomas Sparks”, was soon found to be an alcoholic tyrant, prone to erratic seamanship and violent rages, often directed at the passengers. During one of these tantrums he threatened them with loaded firearms and called for gunpowder, causing them to fear he would blow up the ship and them with it! The “Thomas Sparks” was several miles off course as it approached Capetown, but undeterred, on 3 October 1842, Sharp decided to sail into port at night and the ship struck Whale Rock off Penguin Island. It must have been a case of déjà vu for Edward and Elizabeth, but Captain Fearon, who had often taken command of the ship while Sharp was “indisposed”, proved the man of the hour. As water poured in and pandemonium reigned, he swiftly took charge and restored order. He had the pumps manned all night and in the morning the badly damaged barque came off the rock and limped into Capetown, where she stayed till 4 December while repairs were made.

"Nelson Haven" (1848)
Artist: William Fox (1812-1893)
A welcome sight for the "Thomas Sparks"' passengers
after their fraught and seemingly endless voyage.
The “Thomas Sparks” was damaged yet again in January 1843 when she collided with the cattle-laden brig "Margaret" while entering Port Nicholson (Wellington), and it wasn’t until 26 February 1843 that the 30 hapless passengers for Nelson finally reached their destination. (7) In the meantime Edward and Elizabeth Fearon had made a start on their family, with their first child, Elizabeth (Lizzie) Ludwig Fearon, being born during the outward-bound voyage on 22 December 1842.
"Dr J.D. Greenwood"
Artist Sarah Greenwood
Danforth Greenwood (1802-1890)
played a significant role as
politician and educationist .

"A more genial friend and companion
it would have been impossible to meet".

The Fearons settled at first in Nelson and befriended new settlers Dr John Danforth and Sarah Greenwood who arrived a month after them on the “Phoebe”, having already bought sections from the New Zealand Company before leaving England; one in Wellington, a Town Acre in Nelson and Suburban Section 152 in Motueka.

With its convenient coastal plains and fertile river valleys, the Motueka region very nearly became the site for the New Zealand Company's proposed second colony, to be named Nelson. It was with this in mind that Captain Arthur Wakefield's Preliminary Expedition landed exploratory parties at Pah Point, Kaiteriteri, in October 1841. lt had been suggested to Wakefield as a possibility by Captain Frederick Moore. Motueka's earliest European settler, Moore had sailed to Blind Bay (now Tasman Bay) several times during 1840 and 1841, established friendly contact with the Maori of West Wanganui in Te Tai Tapu (Westhaven, Golden Bay), Riwaka and Motueka, and had taken a Maori wife with Motueka connections. 

The area was home to Maori of mostly Ngati Rarua and Ngati Atiawa descent, with a population estimated initially at 500, but thought to have more likely between 200-300. Seasonally nomadic in search of food, they were hunter-gatherers who lived by fishing, catching wood pigeons and other birds, and gathering edible plants and berries. They also raised pigs and grew vegetables, cultivating extensive potato gardens stretching from Lower Moutere to the Motueka River. Familiar with Europeans from trade with the whalers of Cloudy Bay and Port Underwood (Picton), a number of them had been converted to Christianity by the Wesleyan missionaries based at Cloudy Bay from 1839. As it happened, Wakatu was chosen as the site for Nelson instead, due to its sheltered harbour. Moore, who served as the Expedition's pilot, claimed the honour of being first of the party to discover Nelson Haven (now Port Nelson) on the eastern side of Tasman Bay. (8)

'Astrolabe Roadstead: Tasman's Gulf"
Artist: Charles Heaphy (Official New Zealand Company artist and draughtsman)
Captain Wakefield's Preliminary Expedition ships - the "Whitby", "Will Watch" and "Arrow" -
anchored off Kaiteriteri in October 1841.
Two small Deal boats (see one at front) were used to explore across Tasman Bay 
and up the Motueka River.
Around 12 chieftains from Motueka and Riwaka, attended by their followers, had a lengthy but amicable meeting with Wakefield at Kaiteriteri on 29 October 1841. Anticipating a mutually beneficial opportunity for trade, they. later welcomed the first European pioneers to the area, twenty "cottier" families, smallholders who settled on land at Riwaka in the early months of 1843. However, they had not foreseen the scale of emigration or that Wakefield erroneously believed that the New Zealand Company had bought the entire Blind Bay area from Ngati Toa chief Te Rauparaha. Not having to their mind agreed to sell land other than that in the Riwaka Valley, during 1842 the local Maori observed with alarm (amply justified in light of their subsequent dispossession) the activities of New Zealand Company surveyors at work in the Motueka area under the direction of Assistant Surveyor Samuel Stephens

Plan of Motueka showing NZ Company 50 acre
Suburban Sections. Native Tenths Reserves
selected in 1842 are coloured yellow.
Te Maatu (the Big Wood) is outlined in green.
Reassurances were sought and given that their potato gardens and Te Maatu (The Big Wood) would be left untouched. Promises were also made that customary areas of occupation, burial grounds and sites of cultural significance would be set aside exclusively for them, and that the Company's policy of Native Tenth Reserves meant one-tenth of land intended for European settlement would be leased rather than sold, with rents to be used for the benefit of Maori.(9) The survey then went ahead, and Motueka, including Lower Moutere and Riwaka, was divided into 264 sections of 50 acres and 5 sections of 750 acres. The nature of the land up for grabs in the "Motuaka District" was described in detail for prospective buyers in the 13 August 1842 edition of the "Nelson Examiner". Particular note was made of the Te Maatu cultivations, "considered by the natives as the most valuable of their territorial possessions in the neighbourhood". (10

However, the areas supposedly exempted for Maori had been included in the survey and were amongst those made available for selection by settlers. They came under under increasing pressure as larger numbers of settlers moved in, and were largely lost in 1853 when Governor Grey arbitrarily appropriated 918 acres of Maori reserve land and gifted them to the Anglican Church for its contentious Whakarewa School project.

His Nelson property proving unsatisfactory, Danforth Greenwood determined that his suburban section in Motueka would be the most suitable place for his family to make their home as long as the Fearons could find land close by “for their mutual friendship and protection”. Accordingly, on 2 June 1843 Edward Fearon bought Motueka Suburban Section 155 for £200 from Captain Wakefield, the New Zealand Company’s Resident Agent in Nelson(11) It was situated half a mile distant from and to the north of the Greenwoods’ and close at its eastern boundary to a tidal inlet known as the “salt waters”.  Captain Fearon’s 50 acre property was a mix of fern, flax-covered swamp and dense native bush – beech, totara, rimu and kahikatea (white pine) - which he straightaway set to work clearing. As can be seen from the map above, the Fearon section included part of the eastern edge of the Te Maatu forest garden.

"Scene of the Wairau Massacre"
Artist:Charles Emilius Gold (1809-1871)
Tuamarina, Marlborough.

Not long after Captain Fearon bought his land, the small colony of Nelson was thrown into chaos by the catastrophic Wairau Affray of 17 June 1843. The result of an ill-advised attempt to strong-arm Ngati Toa chiefs Te Rauparaha and  Te Rangihaeata, it was the first serious clash of arms between Maori and British settlers to take place after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi and led to the deaths of 22 of Nelson’s leading citizens, including Captain Wakefield himself. Four Maori were killed as well, one of the first being Te Rangihaeata's wife Te Rongo, who is also thought to have been Te Rauparaha's daughter. Her death may in fact have precipitated events.

For some time settlers lived in fearful expectation of a full-scale attack by Ngati Toa tribesmen on Nelson itself, and hastily established a fortified refuge named Fort Arthur on Church Hill for their protection. An appeal to the British government for military aid got short shrift from incoming Governor, Robert Fitzroy, who was forthright in his opinion that the Nelson settlers were at fault and had brought their troubles upon themselves. He didn't have the resources to prosecute a war against Te Rauparaha in any case, so a conciliatory approach was the only option he could realistically take. Outraged Nelsonians never forgave Fitzroy, and when he was recalled to London in 1845, they partied in the streets and burnt his effigy in jubilant celebration. Their fears were never realised, despite frightening rumours and the odd “warlike encounter”, including the confrontation at Happy Valley (Hira) with leading Wakapuaka chieftain Paremata te Wahapiro on 21 January 1845. The damage was done, though, and the Wairau Affray left a lingering distrust between Pakeha and Maori which contributed towards the alienation of the latter.

"Maori group on beach, Motueka" (between 1847-1851)
Artist: Richard Aldworth Oliver (1811-1889)
The kunekune pigs adopted by the Maori were 
introduced to New Zealand by European whalers.
The alarm felt in Nelson was even stronger in remote Motueka, which had few Europeans in residence, including small groups at Lower Moutere and Riwaka. Captain Moore lived with his Maori wife, Paru, and friend Charles Heaphy at the “Poenamu” farm just to the north-west of the Fearons’. Captain Thoms, appointed Motueka's first magistrate, also lived close by on part of Moore’s Section 158,. He had just established the town's first sawmill there, powered by water drawn from the Motueka River, which in those days had an overflow channel running through the end of Parker Street. A small group of New Zealand Company roadmakers sent out by Captain Wakefield in March 1843 had set up camp around the town’s first public house, the “Surveyors Arms”, thought to have been in Pah Street.

There was a relatively large Maori community in residence - it's thought that there could have been up to four pa in different parts of the Motueka township, with a well-established one at the corner of Pah and Grey Streets. Local Maori were equally concerned about reprisals from the British, and Captain Fearon acted as a calming presence in the small community. On the 1st of July 1843 he reassured readers of the “Nelson Examiner” that “the natives at Motueka are perfectly quiet and friendly”. (12) This may have been the case at the time, but over the next months there were some heated exchanges over disputed land claims. New Zealand Company roadmen who had taken up land by “squatting” on it were forcibly evicted, and there was an armed standoff at Captain Moore’s farm, for which he never officially held title. Fortunately Dr Greenwood succeeded in defusing this potentially explosive situation, observing later "that very warlike meetings we had with the Maoris on several occasions, but succeeded in convincing them that it would not be to their advantage, even if it were in their power, to get rid of us." (13)

The first "Woodlands" home, built of kahikatea
(white pine) in 1843, was designed as a defensible
 blockhouse, with excavated refuge beneath.

Danforth Greenwood and his three oldest sons had moved to Motueka around August 1843 and lived in a tent while they built their first “Woodlands” home on Thorp Street, at the seaward end of Tudor Street, and recalled today in the street name “Woodlands Ave”. (A second Greenwood home in Motueka also named "Woodlands" can still be seen at 27 Tudor Street near the corner of Hickmott Lane). Following his appointment in September 1843, William Fox, Arthur Wakefield's successor as Resident Agent for Nelson, undertook a survey of settlers in the Nelson region. A report of his findings, dated 1 December 1843, was then sent to the New Zealand Company's Principal Agent in Wellington, Colonel William Wakefield. Fox noted in relation to the Motueka district that Dr Greenwood, who “has not been long on his land is now building a very substantial log house”. Anxiety about a possible Maori attack was still strong and Dr Greenwood’s home was designed as a bullet-proof blockhouse, with excavated refuge beneath, from which a defence could be mounted if necessary. The Greenwood children were forbidden candles at night lest they accidentally blow up the store of gunpowder! Fox continued, ”Near to Dr Greenwood is Mr Fearon, an active settler. He has cleared an acre of bush land and cropped it and a little adjoining fern and flax land”. (14)

"The Level Country at the South End, looking North of Blind Bay".
Artist: Charles Heaphy

Looking across Tasman Bay, with Astrolabe to the left, at the future sites
of the Motueka and Lower Moutere settlements, 
shown from higher ground. 

Mouths of the Motueka River (left) and Moutere River (right).
 The large area of bush (centre) includes the Te Maatu cultivations.
Cattle were a bucolic touch added to appeal to prospective settlers.
Thirty-five miles by land and twenty miles by sea from Nelson, Motueka had no roads when the first pioneers arrived. It did however have a small accessible harbour known as the Manuka Entrance (Te Kumara), at what is now the end of Staples Street and close to the north-eastern end of the Fearons’ land. This was regularly used by Maori - it was a common sight for the early residents of Thorp Street to see Maori canoes paddling past - and also before long by Fearon. Sarah Greenwood noted that “Captain F. has a boat of his own and is a prudent and very skilful boatman”. A trip across Tasman Bay (then known as Blind Bay) was a chancy business in a sailing boat, taking anything from two to twelve hours (or longer) depending on tides and weather conditions. Mrs Greenwood described one epic return trip across Tasman Bay from Nelson to Motueka in Captain Fearon’s boat: "We were becalmed, and remained on the water from 10 that morning till 4 o'clock the following morning, when we landed." (15) 

Sarah Greenwood
"A most excellent settler's wife,"
said Samuel Stephens.

Admired by all who knew her, Sarah Greenwood took to pioneering with the same zest she brought to all her endeavours. A talented musician and artist, she taught her own large brood of children and later ran a private school for girls in Nelson, where she was highly regarded as a teacher. Her legacy of drawings, paintings and lively letters gives an invaluable picture of life in early Nelson and Motueka. "A wonderful little woman - one of nature's ladies", recalled Motueka contemporary T.G. (Tom) Brougham. "She educated her ten children - boys and girls. She had absolute command over them. Sometimes they were boisterous, but she had only to hold up her hand and say, "Now, children", and she was given instant obedience." (16) She is commemorated in Motueka today by the thoroughfare between Greenwood and Tudor Streets named Sarah Lane.

Dr Greenwood and Captain Fearon took over the management of Captain Thoms' sawmill on behalf of his wife after its owner fell ill. ("Captain Thoms became mental", said Tom Brougham). The Fearon boat probably came in handy for the rafts of logs they towed over to Nelson, where they were in demand for use as ship's spars. Sarah Greenwood recorded one such trip as netting 
£100, of which Danforth Greenwood and Edward Fearon would share £40 - a useful extra with cash in short supply. Captain Moore often helped out and they also employed Leonard Stilwell, a young American carpenter from Brooklyn, New York. Operations at the sawmill ceased after Thoms’ death in 1845, but Stilwell continued to work for Dr Greenwood, who gave him a ten-acre block of land in Riwaka, He named it “Brooklyn” for his hometown, and this name still attaches to the area.

"Motueka, near Massacre Bay, Middle Island, NZ"  (Between 1851-1856)
Artist: John Pearse (1851-1882)
Two Maori canoes off the Motueka coastline, a common sight for Thorp Street's earliest residents.
(Massacre Bay is now known as Golden Bay and Middle Island as the South Island)

Captain Fearon’s brothers-in-law, Thomas and John Ward, had jointly purchased Section 48 at Suburban South (Stoke) for £160. (17) They were among the first to farm there. William Fox recorded in his December 1843 report that ”on entering the plain from Nelson, the first cultivations met with are those of Messrs Thorp, Ward and Songer, each of whom has enclosed about five acres which are at present cropped with barley and potatoes” 

Captain Arthur Wakefield
The New Zealand Company's
Resident Agent in Nelson.
Settlers had previously bought their land from the New Zealand Company in lots which included a town acre, a suburban or accommodation section (50 acres) and a rural section (150 acres), but this system quickly proved unworkable. The three sections in any given lot were not necessarily anywhere near each other, and the Company didn’t in any case have sufficient land to fulfil its promises (a major impetus for the push to forcibly acquire the Wairau Valley). This problem was compounded by the large amount of land tied up by speculators who never intended to settle in New Zealand. As it was soon apparent that the majority of Nelson's settlers were not the large landowners anticipated, but labourers just wanting sufficent land for a smallholding, Captain Wakefield obtained the Company's permission to offer single blocks for sale. In the event, he only had time to sell two of these before his death - the suburban sections purchased by Fearon and his Ward brothers-in-law. (18) 

Perhaps the fact that these two transactions were conducted simultaneously and processed during a time of upset and confusion after Captain Wakefield's death accounts for claims that Captain Fearon bought and worked his Motueka section jointly with his brother Thomas Fearon. As no such brother existed, this “Thomas” was almost certainly Edward Fearon’s brother-in-law Thomas (Tom) Ward, who between 1844-1848 is recorded as a farmer at Suburban South. (19) Whether he ever purchased a share in Fearon’s Motueka Section 155 or not is unclear, though there was frequent interaction between the Fearons and the Wards and Tom Ward does appear to have been staying in Motueka around 1848. William Fox's 1843 report indicates that Fearon was working his property alone at that time.

Charles Thorp
Charles Thorp, the Wards’ neighbour at Stoke, had arrived in Nelson on the “Olympus” in 1842. He was one of four riders who took part in the first Nelson Anniversary's madcap steeplechase up and down Church Hill on 1 February 1843, and was very nearly a member of Captain Wakefield's ill-fated Wairau party. He may have met the Greenwoods and Fearons through the Ward brothers. Deciding to move to Motueka himself, he established a farm on a 50 acre suburban section sited between the Fearon and Greenwood properties. He built a small cottage on the land he named “Burton Farm”, later shifting to a two-storeyed house known as "Sandridge", built on a sandy ridge at the southern end of what became Thorp Street, and surrounded by a grove of trees. (20) Thorp and his family returned to the original “Burton” home after selling “Sandridge” in 1875 to Plymouth Brethren evangelist James George Deck, whose daughter Mary successfully ran a private girls' school there with the help of her father and sisters Daisy and Alice. Mary Deck appears to have been a teacher in the same mould as Sarah Greenwood. "She had tremendous dignity and expected to be obeyed", recalled her nephew Arthur Salisbury. "'My dear, I wish it!' was quite sufficient to quell any spirit of opposition, but in spite of this she was never domineering or dogmatic. Many felt it was an inestimable privilege to have known her and been influenced by her love and prayer." (21)

"'Burton', a residence of Charles Thorp esq".(1850)
Drawn as a wedding gift for Charles Thorp and his
bride Mary Ward by the artist, Sarah Greenwood

Thorp was not only a good friend but became a relative-by-marriage on 11 April 1850, when he was married at Motueka to Mrs Fearon’s younger sister Mary Ward (1817-1886), the Rev. Thomas Tudor officiating.  Mary had come out from England on the “Bernicia” in 1848 to stay with the Fearon family. Sarah Greenwood was delighted by this match. "I think our estimable neighbour Miss Ward will be married in a fortnight. Mr Thorp is smartening up his little home, and I hope to make a drawing of it soon after the wedding. I suppose I must give them each a copy for their friends". Her daughters Mary and Fanny Greenwood were bridesmaids at the ceremony. (22) Charles and Mary had three children, but only the youngest, Frederick William Thorp, survived his parents, becoming a successful businessman (he established Motueka’s first butter factory) and Mayor of Motueka from 1904 until his death in office in 1911 at the age of 50. Charles Thorp died on 20 March 1905 and his obituary gives an instructive picture of the most pressing concerns for Motueka’s earliest settlers. The Thorp family is remembered in Motueka by the place names Thorp Street and Thorp Bush, a public reserve gifted to the Motueka community by the Thorp Estate in the 1950s - one of the few remaining places in Motueka where the luxuriant podocarp forest which once covered the whole township can still be seen.

For many years this public-spirited trio of earliest settlers - Fearon, Greenwood and Thorp - would be at the heart of local society, giving freely of their time and talents to "the Village”, as the Motueka township was known, though the sorry state of its first roads in the wet also earned it the nickname “Muddy Acre”!

"Tangi at Motueka" (between 1847-1851)
Artist: Richard Aldworth Oliver 
The Pakeha population of Motueka was growing. According to Samuel Stephens, by 1847 it had reached around 100, and the “three or four gentlemen” mentioned amongst this number would probably have included Fearon, Greenwood and Thorp. Diary entries made by Matthew Campbell during 1846 suggest that the Maori population of Motueka stood at 194 in that year, Some Maori had already left the area after the Wairau Afffray and their numbers continued to drop as a result of European diseases and the later loss of their Motueka reserves. A number returned to ancestral lands in the North Island.

The Wairau Affray was a major setback for the already beleaguered New Zealand Company, whose financial collapse in 1844 caused great hardship for many settlers in the Nelson region. Funding for projects like road-making ceased, leaving those who had depended on Company wages in a desperate state. The Fearons, who had their own land, were better off than many, able to become relatively self-sufficient once they got crops in. Motueka’s soil was rich and there was a brisk trade with Nelson in timber and vegetables. With supplies desperately needed for the hordes of diggers pouring in from all over the world, the Victorian gold rush proved a boon for Motueka Maori and European settlers alike in the early 1850s, creating an equally brisk trade with Australia in timber, grain and potatoes, farmers receiving up to £10 a ton for the latter. A trading vessel of 300 to 400 tons would stand outside the sand bank and small boats would take the potatoes out to her until they were all loaded. This ship would then take the cargo of potatoes to Melbourne where they had a ready market. Shops selling them would display a placard on which was printed “Potatoes from Motueka, New Zealand”.

Native bush from the Thorp and Fearon properties was milled on site and sent away in boats that sailed up the stream to Thorp's Bush from the mouth of Doctor’s Creek (the site of the historic wharf at Motueka Quay).It took its name from an old Maori tohunga known by the settlers as Doctor Moon, who lived next to the creek. Before the first jetty was built, small ships would come in close, ground in the shallows and wait till until low tide, when bullock-drawn drays were able to go out to load and unload their cargoes. (23)

The Greenwood family's 'Woodlands" farm at Motueka in 1852,
with their second homestead at right.
Artist: Sarah Greenwood.
There was also a lucrative reverse trans-Tasman trade in farm animals. Stock was in short supply in the Nelson district and animals imported from Australia brought an excellent return. In July 1847 Captain Fearon sailed to Sydney from Wellington on the ‘Star of China” and returned to Nelson in November on the brigantine "Brightman”, which was carrying 950 sheep, 112 cattle and 10 horses for the local market. It’s likely that a number may have been intended for Fearon’s farm, which was certainly cultivated and stocked by 1850. In April 1851 Fearon was elected an inaugural committee member of the Richmond Cattle Fair, one of the more resilient of the early agricultural organisations eventually superseded in 1893 by the Nelson Agricultural & Pastoral Association.
July 25, 1851, was a significant day for the Nelson livestock industry as it saw the arrival of the brig “Spray” from Sydney with Waimea West settler Henry Redwood Jnr on board with a number of Australian thoroughbred horses that would form the basis of his "Redwood Stables" stud. One of these was the renowned Australian-bred sire, “Sir Hercules”. Edward Fearon owned several of his progeny, which he is recorded as racing between 1854 and 1858 at Nelson Turf Club Meetings. Both Fearon and his wife had a keen interest in horses and regularly attended the Nelson Anniversary races held at the Stoke Race Course from 1845. Prizes were at first raised by means of subscription, and in the early years Elizabeth Fearon was one of the prominent settlers' wives who subscribed to the Ladies' Purse, among them Mesdames Fox, Monro, Renwick, Sclanders, Richmond and Fell.

Race Day at Stoke, ca. 1865.
Many settlers were horse racing enthusiasts and 
Race Days were popular social occasions.  

Races were held at the Stoke Race Course for many years, 
the first taking place on 3 Febriuary 1845. 
Horses were particularly expensive to begin with, and bullocks provided most of the motive power for some years. Bullock-drawn drays, unstable and prone to capsize, were used for transport. In the earliest years Captain Fearon had the first carriage seen in Motueka, an improvised sledge with a packing case attached as seating for the passenger, most often Mrs Fearon, and drawn by two bullocks driven by the Captain walking alongside. (24) Later he would own the first wheeled horse-drawn passenger vehicle in the Motueka district.
"Our little church at Motueka"
Artist: Sarah Greenwood.
The first St Thomas Anglican Church at Motueka,

 built of pit-sawn timber and consecrated by
Bishop Selwyn on 16 April 1848. The home of the Fearons' 
closest neighbours, the Egintons, can be seen behind.

Always a generous benefactor to the Church of England, in 1844 Captain Fearon donated a section of his land at the junction of today’s Thorp and Fearon Streets as the site for an Anglican church and a churchyard burial ground. Because of its proximity to the sea, burials were generally conducted at low tide to avoid the disurbing sight of coffins afloat. This historic cemetery remained in use until 1945 and is today incorporated in the Pioneer Historic Park. Edward Fearon planted the two large oak trees still standing at the site.

This was the first of several such bequests he made to the Motueka community. These included a quarter-acre site (where the Motueka Memorial RSA Club now stands) cut from his land for a public library and reading-room, known as the Motueka Literary Institution. It opened to great fanfare in January 1858 with an extensive programme of celebrations to mark the occasion, including a fête, musical festival, fireworks display and a ball. A special steamer service was put on for visitors from Nelson. Any entertainment was welcome and people in the Nelson region would travel great distances to attend social occasions like concerts, dances, cricket games and horse races.

Commemorative plaque at
the current Motueka Library.
A plaque at the entrance of the present Motueka Public Library in Pah Street commemorates Edward Fearon’s original gift.

Captain Fearon was a founding member of the Loyal Motueka Lodge of Oddfellows, established in 1850, and also gave land (the site today of the Abel Tasman Motor Lodge) for the Oddfellows’ Hall, which opened on Boxing Day 1864, another excuse for a good knees-up. A steamer brought over excursionists from Nelson to enjoy a day-long fête champêtre in the country, and as the sun went down, reported the “Colonist on 10 January 1865, “a dance on the green sward was started and kept up with great spirit to the lively strains of excellent music…until daylight did appear”.

Lodges and Friendly Societies served not only as convivial men’s clubs but also as useful networking tools for men of business and public affairs in colonial New Zealand. In the days before social welfare, they provided financial support for members affected by sickness, accident or old age and paid funeral costs. Even a small town like Motueka had no less than four; the Masonic Lodge, the Ancient Order of Druids (the former established in 1900, the latter around 1895), the Manchester Unity Independent Order of Oddfellows and the Ancient Order of Foresters founded in 1863, of which Fearon was also a member.
Te Rauparaha
Ngati Toa rangatira and war leader

Edward and Elizabeth Fearon’s family was growing, with the additions of Mary (May) (1845-1901), Emma (1847-1913), John Hodgson (1849-1860), Sarah Frances (Fanny) (1851-1913), and Edward Fearon Jnr (1853-1880). Captain Fearon built a large gabled homestead called “Northwood” where visitors were welcomed. It was reached by a long, winding avenue of oaks, elms and poplars, and surrounded by lovely gardens, which made it a perfect setting for church fund-raisers and events like the St Thomas’ Sunday School picnic held there on 12 January 1865.

After the Wairau Affray, Te Rauparaha returned to his lands in the lower North Island. He was taken prisoner in 1846 and was held in captivity by Governor Grey until early 1848. He died the following year. No charge was ever laid, but it was generally seen as belated punishment for the Wairau Affray, Grey being a much more gung-ho character than his predecessor, Fitzroy. Unbeknown to Te Rauparaha, his release was bought from his Ngati Toa iwi by means of a ransom - in part being the "sale" to the Crown of his lands in the Wairau and Awatere Valleys. (25) As a consequence, the Awatere was opened up to colonists. Coming from England, where landownership equalled power and prestige, it would have been hard to resist the opportunity to own a large sheep station. Fearon applied for and was granted grazing rights to the 13,000-acre run in the lower Awatere Valley designated “No 3 Wakefield Downs South”, his depasturage licence being one of the first to be issued on 1 January 1849. He named this run “Marathon” and soon freeholded it. Although he was the subject of envy - “Marathon” had more good flat land and low downs in proportion to its size than any other run in the Awatere – in truth Edward Fearon always found the position of absentee runholder problematic, and in the end it would prove the death of him.

"Awatere Valley and Kaikoura Mountains" (1872)
Arist: John Kinder (1819-1903)
Thomas Ward went over to the Awatere in 1849 as the Captain’s manager and got “Marathon” under way on his brother-in-law’s behalf. In 1853 Tom Ward was offered the rights to a hilly 34,000-acre station in the Upper Awatere between Cattle Creek and Molesworth Creek, which he took up and named “Langridge” after the Ward family home in Devon. However, he continued to use “Marathon”, as his headquarters while he worked on building up his own run, possibly preferring its homestead to his own cottage at "Langridge", described by Dr (later Sir) David Monro in 1855 as "the most desolute miserable looking place I ever set eyes upon". (26)

The Nelson Provincial Buildings
The business of the Nelson Provincial
Council was carried out here between 1853-1873

Meanwhile, Edward Fearon had entered the world of local politics. In 1853 Nelson officially became a Province run by a Provincial Council, its range encompassing the entire upper South Island (known then as the Middle Island). Following the death of Motueka’s first representative, Samuel Stephens, the Captain was elected to the Nelson Provincial Council on 16 August 1855 as Member for the Districts of Motueka and Massacre Bay (now Golden Bay) and held the seat until the end of the First Provincial Council's term in 1857.(27) Although the Captain and his wife already moved in what counted as the upper echelons of Nelson society, this position gave him a voice amongst the Province's movers and shakers and the chance to meet and mix with influential men of the day, both within the Province and beyond it. Fearon can be seen right in his element, putting that voice to work at meetings of the Provincial Council, its members' speeches being dutifully reported by the "Nelson Examiner" in eye-glazing detail.

"Collingwood and Pakawau" (1864)
Artist: Jane Stowe nee Greenwood (1838-1931)
Sixth of Danforth & Sarah Greenwood's children.

Fearon's brother-in-law John Ward also served on the First Nelson Provincial Council from 1855-1857 as representative for the Suburban District, and again on the Second Provincial Council between 1857-1858, this time for Waimea East.
Gold fever briefly consumed Motueka with the discovery of gold in the Waiwhero and Baton Valleys around 1856, and later in the Mt Arthur Tablelands. Although these findings did contribute to the wealth of the township and the creation of more access trackways, they never warranted a real boom in the area. This wasn’t true of Collingwood, which grew exponentially during the Aorere gold rush of 1857-64, and a number of Motueka residents made their way to Golden Bay to try their luck. The next flurry at Wakamarina in 1864 was short-lived, lasting only a year at its height.

Edward Fearon Burrell
Captain Fearon's nephew
and namesake.
Around May 1860 Tom Ward moved on after selling his “Langridge Station” to brothers Alexander and George Monro, nephews of Nelson conservative politician David Monro. Ward may have had his arm twisted or been made an offer he couldn't refuse. The young Munros were keen to add his station to the "Valleyfield" run near Renwick which they already owned, so their uncle put the pressure on through Ward’s brother-in-law, Captain Fearon, a political ally whom he knew well. This left “Marathon” unsupervised, but conveniently Fearon just happened to have another relative on hand to help out - his young nephew and namesake, Edward Fearon Burrell.

Edward Burrell was the only son of Captain Fearon’s older sister Mary Fearon, who had married Thomas Gibbard Burrell in London in 1835. An energetic and enterprising lad, Burrell gave up his job in a London architect’s office at the age of 18 and took passage on the “Maori” in 1858 to join his uncle in New Zealand. He had been working on the Captain’s Motueka farm, but was happy enough to go to the Awatere and take over at “Marathon”, being paid 15 shillings per week for his efforts. This he did for three years and through this connection with “Marathon” Edward Burrell came to befriend the Chaytor brothers, John and Arthur, of “Coverham Run”. Both would later become part of the Fearon and Burrell clans.

L-R: Brothers Brian, John &
Arthur Chaytor.
Five sons of John Clervaux Chaytor and Lydia nee Brown, holders of the ancient manor of Croft-on-Tees in North Yorkshire, came out to New Zealand to work on Marlborough sheep runs. John and Edward Chaytor arrived first in 1860 to help an acquaintance, Joseph Dresser Tetley (more of this gentleman later), establish his "Kekerengu Station". After setting up their own "Coverham Run", they were joined by their brothers Arthur, Brian and Charles. Edward died of rheumatic fever in the Awatere, Charles eventually returned to England. and Brian later settled in the North Island. John married Captain Fearon's daughter Emma in 1867, while Arthur married Fearon's niece, Mary Ellen Burrell in 1872.

Captain Fearon’s adventurous spirit saw him explore the areas around Motueka soon after his arrival there. He is recorded as a visitor to the short-lived St Paulidorf Lutheran Mission at Harekeke in boggy Central Moutere and like a number of better-off settlers he travelled with surprising frequency, given the difficulties involved, taking ship to Wellington, the Wairau and Golden Bay, where he purchased a 150-acre block of land (Section 9) at Motupipi in the early 1850s. His wife sometimes accompanied him on these trips and they also travelled together to Nelson by horseback, a two-day journey each way requiring overnight stop-overs at the homes of friends in Nelson and the Waimeas. While in town on business, Captain Fearon made his Nelson headquarters at the Wakatu Hotel, a favourite home away from home and "gentlemen's club" for many country residents. Fearon's horse became so familiar with the drill that it would take itself straight to the "Wakatu"'s stables on arrival in town.

"Northwood", the Fearon family's large gabled
home at Motueka. It burnt down in the late 1920s.

Artist unknown.
Having put in a farm manager for “Northwood” (Frederick Guerin  - keen cricketer, militiaman and later a Dovedale settler), Edward Fearon was free to join John Rochfort’s survey party in early 1860. On 9 February they departed Golden Bay on the schooner “Gipsy”, owned and skippered by Captain Jack McCann. They were on an expedition to explore the West Coast, check the accessibility of the Grey and Buller rivers for shipping, and take in supplies for another party led by James Mackay Jnr, a Golden Bay resident and an old friend of Captain Fearon’s. (28) The “Gipsy” anchored in the Buller River and Fearon accompanied Rochfort’s party on a tramp down the coast to the Mawhera (Grey) River, where they met up with McKay before setting out for home on 13 March 1860.

A Scotsman who as a youngster came out to Nelson in 1844 on the "Slains Castle" along with his well-to-do family, assorted kinsmen, servants and a prefabricated house, the larger-than-life Mackay was a man of many talents - farmer, explorer, map maker, administrator and fluent speaker of Te Reo. He also worked as an agent and "fixer" for the NZ Government. When he connected with Fearon’s party he had been negotiating a purchase of land known as the Ahaura Block from Ngai Tahu on behalf of Land Purchase Commissioner, Donald McLean, Mackay completed this transaction on 21 May 1860. Taking ruthless advantage of his understanding of the Maori language and customs, Mackay acquired vast tracts of Maori land for the Crown at the cheapest possible prices in both the North and South Islands. Mackay was serving as Commissioner of Native Reserves on 11 June 1864 when he oversaw a transaction allowing Fearon to exchange his Motupipi land in Golden Bay for an equivalent in Motueka – Sections 139, 140 & 141, comprising 148 acres just east of “Northwood”. (29)

Some questions arise about this deal - the Maori owner of the Motueka land was given to believe that it would be conveyed to the Central Board of Education in Nelson for a school. This doesn't appear to have been the case, but whether it was ever actually intended for this purpose is unknown. It is known that by 1876 the Fearon family claimed the adjoining Native Tenth Reserve Sections 137 and 138 as part of the "Northwood" estate. These may have been leased from the New Zealand Company and later freeholded, or been part of the land given to the Church by Governor Grey and occupied by the Fearons under a Whakarewa School Trust lease. The Fearon family had by then also acquired Section 156, next door to their Section 155. (30)

"West Coast of the Province of Canterbury from the northern bank of the River Grey" (1862)
Artist: John Gully (1819-1888)
A few months after the Captain's return from the West Coast, the Fearons were dealt a heavy blow. Their oldest son, 11-year-old John Hodgson Fearon, died at home on the 5th of August 1860. He was the first of the Fearon family to be buried at the churchyard cemetery in Thorp Street. John Fearon’s death notice in the “Nelson Examiner” of 11 September 1860, heads a list that is a grim reminder of the high mortality rates suffered by the children of Nelson’s pioneers.

The year 1860 was one of turmoil generally for the Nelson region. Marlborough had seceded from the Nelson Province at the end of 1859 and there was renewed anxiety following the outbreak of hostilities between settlers and Maori in the North Island, resulting in the First Taranaki Land War. In response, volunteer militia corps were formed in many parts of the Nelson district and these included the Motueka Rifle Volunteers, commanded by a former British military man, Captain Frederick Horneman. (31)
Richmond Hursthouse
Married Mary Fearon in 1869
Came to Nelson as a Taranaki refugee
and stayed on, becoming M.P.
for Motueka from 1876-1887 and
Motueka's first Mayor in 1899.
With New Plymouth under siege, over 1,000 women and children were evacuated from the Taranaki Province and brought to safety in Nelson. Among them were the wife and family of John Hursthouse, the “Thomas Sparks’” diarist, who renewed their friendship with the Fearons. Escaping an unhappy marriage, Helen Hursthouse chose to stay in Nelson with her children and didn’t return to New Plymouth. Many Nelsonians hosted these Taranaki Refugees, and on 11 April 1860 a public meeting chaired by Captain Fearon was held at the Motueka Institute to discuss accommodating Taranaki refugees in Motueka. It's thought that several families did this and one instance at least is known; the Greenwoods took in the Rawson children - Louisa, Herbert and Ernest - when the Nelson household of their host, Dr Sealy, became overfull. (32)

After three years the Captain’s nephew had had enough of the primitive and isolated life at the Awatere and returned to Motueka in January 1863. Using some money inherited from his mother’s estate, Edward Burrell bought a small farm at Riwaka as a home for himself and his sisters Emma and Mary, who had decided to join him in New Zealand. A few years later he took up land at Ngatimoti in the Orinoco Valley and built a house there . When he married Emily Bowden in 1869, the newly-weds moved into their new home at Ngatimoti, along with Edward Burrell's sisters. Despite their removal from town, the Burrells remained close to the Fearons and they stayed in constant contact with each other.

His nephew's return meant that Edward Fearon again had to do something about “Marathon” and in January 1864 he leased it for a fourteen year term to an experienced station manager, John Henry Caton, at a rental of £2,000 a year.

Rev. T.L. Tudor
Motueka's first resident
vicar. He married Captain Fearon's
 niece, Emma Hardy Burrell.
The Captain maintained a keen interest in public affairs and church activities. Work had started early in 1844 on the first St Thomas’ Church, constructed of rammed earth on the land he had given for the purpose, but before the roof could be put on, the walls collapsed during a heavy rainstorm. Informal services were held at the Greenwoods’ home until the replacement pit-sawn timber church, built on the same site, was completed and consecrated by Bishop Selwyn on 16 April 1848. After the service of consecration the Fearons were delighted to host the Bishop when he stopped for refreshments at “Northwood” on his way to visit Riwaka. Edward Fearon was one of the earliest of St Thomas’ churchwardens, his service dating from 1849, and ten years later he was elected a member of the Nelson Diocesan General Synod.

As was common in early communities, to begin with church and school shared the same premises, and classes were soon being held at the new church. In 1849 Motueka’s first resident vicar was appointed, Welshman Reverend Thomas Lloyd Tudor (for whom Motueka’s Tudor Street is named). In 1872 he married Captain Fearon’s niece Emma Hardy Burrell.

"The Motueka school house"  (1851)
Artist: Sarah Greenwood
Motueka's first purpose built school, it was
run by the Anglican Church from 1850-1866.

Dr Greenwood had added Motueka Sections 153 & 154 to his holdings. Some of this land he subdivided for the various storekeepers and tradesmen looking to move into Motueka, among them a cooper, blacksmith, baker, tailor and bricklayer. and a couple of carpenters and shoemakers. With a clergyman, doctor, magistrate and constable in residence as well, Greenwood noted in a letter dated 30 March 1850 that "Motueka is assuming quite a settled appearance".  

The same year Danforth Greenwood donated 23 acres of land (part Section 154) to Bishop Selwyn as a glebe. Two acres 
on the corner of High and Greenwood Streets were put into trust as the site for a church, vicarage and schoolmaster’s residence in Motueka, and one acre for a purpose-built schoolroom. This first church-run school opened in 1850 and sat in a grassy paddock with a wooden gate opening on Greenwood Street (named for Dr Greenwood), where the Salvation Army Hall now stands. After a public school was established in 1866 on the site of today's Motueka Museum, it became the St Thomas’ Sunday School and was also used for church meetings and Motueka Horticultural Society shows. These last were very popular and highly competitive. Everyone had a go, Mrs Fearon apparently having a winning touch with her table carrots,

"St Thomas Anglican Church with
 the Rev Poole's parsonage
behind, Motueka". (1879)
The artist, E.A.C. Thomas (b.1825),
was a relative of Lt. Col. Thynne Thomas
of "Dehra Doon", Riwaka.
The centre of town had gradually shifted to High Street and in May 1860 the little St Thomas Church followed, hauled by a team of bullocks from Thorp Street to the land on High Street earlier donated by Dr Greenwood. Captain Fearon took a great interest in the project and helped fund the costs of the move. Additions were made to the building after it was settled at its new site (where Parsons Motors stands today) and it continued to serve the community until replaced in 1910 by the present St Thomas Church, just a little further along High Street to the south.

At  £1 a sitting, letting out pews was a good little earner for St Thomas, whose only funding for many years came from contributions made by its congregation. The Fearons were pew-holders and had a roomy pew with an extension under the lectern, in later years occupied by Mrs Fearon, her unmarried daughter Lizzie and a number of Chaytor, Thomas and Hursthouse grandchildren. The whole Fearon family was closely involved with the Church. Mrs Fearon was an early member of the Ladies’ Guild, a sociable group which worked diligently to raise funds for the Church through sales of work, subscriptions and various benefit events.

"New Plymouth Under Siege" (1860)
Artist: Edwin Harris (1810-1895)
The tiny paddle steamer 'Tasmanian Maid" can be seen at centre as troops
of the 40th Regiment are ferried ashore to relieve the besieged township
of New Plymouth during the First Taranaki War.
The 1856 Census of Motueka shows the township hitting a growth spurt, now boasting "a population of 981, 121 horses, 147 goats, 1667 cattle, 1859 sheep, and 171 buildings, of these 119 with good shingle roofs". 

With roads still not much more than rough cart or bridle tracks, the sea remained the easiest means of travel for many years. Although a "mosquito fleet" of little sailing boats busily plied its trade around Tasman Bay, getting a faster and more reliable steamer service to meet the increasing demands of out-of-the-way Motueka was one of Captain Fearon’s passions. He was a prime mover and Provisional Committee member when the Nelson Coast Steam Navigation Company was set up 1855 “to establish steam communication between Nelson, Motueka, Massacre Bay and other parts of the province”. Trading as the “Nelson Coast Steam Association”, it purchased the sturdy little paddle steamer “Tasmanian Maid”, of 90 tons and boasting a speed of 10 to 11 knots. A 10 ft wide T-shaped wooden jetty (expanded in 1858) was built by Charles and Joseph Parker in 1856 at the Doctor's Creek site to accommodate her, and on 23 June 1857 she set out amid much excitement on her first trial trip from Nelson to Motueka and Collingwood, with “opinion expressed by all on board of the steamer’s performance one of unqualified approbation”. (The local worthies aboard must have had iron constitutions or been well braced with brandy - a paddle steamer ploughing along with her thrashing paddle wheels in motion was notoriously conducive to seasickness) (33) She then went into operation carrying goods and passengers between Nelson, Motueka, Collingwood, Wairau, Picton and across the Cook Strait to Wellington. She was the earliest of the small coastal steamers that revolutionized transport in the region.

Nathaniel Edwards
Entrepreneur extraordinaire.
Merchant and politician.
The “Maid”, as she was familiarly known, was used in 1860 to carry refugees from New Plymouth to Nelson and was then co-opted by the military for service during the First Taranaki Land War. She was returned in July 1861 and went back on the Nelson coastal run. However her owners (renamed the Nelson & Marlborough Coast Steam Navigation Company after Marlborough became a separate province) never recovered after the badly damaged “Tasmanian Maid” had to be sold in May 1862 following an accident on the Wairau River  - the cost of repairs was beyond their means. (Refitted and renamed "Sandfly", the little steamer then went on to a further career in the North Island). Before they could get up and running again, Nathaniel Edwards & Co. had seized the opportunity to set up a rival steam navigation company which smartly filled the gap. Their paddle steamer “Lyttelton” had taken over the Nelson coastal trade by November 1862 and was joined in 1864 by the twin-screw steamer “Wallabi”, first in what would become the long-running Anchor Shipping Companys fleet of steamers. The Nelson & Marlborough Coast Steam Navigation Co. struggled on but didn’t have sufficient resources to compete. It was wound up at the end of 1865, much to Edward Fearon’s regret.

Education was another subject of perennial concern and from 1861 Fearon served on the Motueka Board of Education for several terms and was also appointed its representative to the Central Education Board in Nelson. Edward Burrell had been elected a member of the Ngatimoti School Committee when the school opened in 1868, and his uncle Edward Fearon was invited, as a person of consequence, to inspect the Ngatimoti pupils the following year.

The "P. S Lyttelton"
Berthed at the end of High Street, Blenheim.
Her arrival marked the end of the line for the
Nelson & Marlborough Coast Steam Navigation Company.
With his ever-present pipe on hand, the Captain was a well-known local identity. Politics remained a major preoccupation, and during nominations for the Superintendent of the Nelson Province on 30 November 1861 he was vocal in support of the "conservative" candidate, John Wallis Barnicoat, being firmly in the "conservative" camp himself. (To no avail - the "liberal" candidate, John Perry Robinson, was elected). Fearon also continued to play an active role in Motueka’s election processes as “kingmaker” after he himself ceased to serve on the Nelson Provincial Council and wasn’t above a spot of character assassination when promoting his preferred candidates at the expense of the opposition. However, this was not seen as particularly sinister - ad hominem attacks were par for the course in colonial politics.
At a large and boisterous meeting held at the Motueka Institute in February 1866 to nominate a Motueka candidate to the House of Representatives, the Captain was taken to task by Provincial Councillor Bernard Macmahon of Riwaka for denigrating the favourite, Charles Parker, in order to boost the chances of his own protégée, James R. Dutton. Macmahon also accused him of having claimed that “he (Fearon) was ‘King of Motueka’ and if he brought forward an old tom cat the people of Motueka would vote for it”. To general laughter Captain Fearon riposted (rather disingenuously, as he was clearly gratified by his unofficial title) that “he was unaware he had assumed the kingship of Motueka; it being generally assumed that Dr Greenwood had done this”. (34)

Bernard Macmahon
of "Clover Hill", Riwaka.
J.P. & Provincial Councillor 

for Motueka 1860-1873.
"A very pretty quarrel" with
Captain Fearon.
The barbed exchanges between the usually genial Captain Fearon and Bernard Macmahon, a Scottish “Expedition man” who had arrived in Nelson on the "Whitby" as a member of Captain Arthur Wakefield’s 1841 Preliminary Expedition, were a source of ongoing entertainment for Motuekans. Provincial government in the Nelson region was from the start an abrasive affair. Divided between “conservative” (upholders of wealth and privilege) and “liberal” (democratic and egalitarian) elements, it was characterised by in-fighting to the degree that those in the political sphere acquired the ironic collective nickname “The Happy Family”. The cold war between Fearon and Macmahon, who stood on opposite sides of the political divide, reached its peak in 1868 when the two prosecuted each other over a spat at Riwaka during a pheasant shoot. This saw the cases Macmahon v Fearon and Fearon v Macmahon heard one after the other before a crowded court at Motueka during the same session on Wednesday, 19th August 1868. The magistrate was less than impressed by this timewaster and summarily dismissed both cases. (35) “This affair is a very pretty quarrel and proves that the normal state of ‘the Happy Family’ remains unaltered”, sniffed the “Nelson Evening Mail”.
"Marathon" continued to be a thorn in Edward Fearon's side. In April 1865 Caton gave notice that he wanted to terminate his lease on the property. Fearon's choice of lessee had been an unfortunate one. Although John Henry Caton had run part of Molesworth Station and later managed several runs in Canterbury. he was a shady character who caused trouble wherever he went and was later sentenced to three years gaol for trying to abscond with the proceeds of the sale of a mob of cattle he had been entrusted with. Joseph Dresser Tetley, the personable owner of "Kekerengu Run" on the East Coast, also held the lease to "Starborough Station", which adjoined "Marathon". He offered to deal with Caton on the Captain's behalf and made an agreement to take over the lease himself - he had always coveted Fearon's land. The disentanglement from Caton, conducted at third hand, turned into a messy, expensive and protracted affair, which took its toll on the Captain. Caton sued Fearon for the reimbursement of money he claimed he was still owed for fencing he'd done on the run. The case dragged on, not coming to court in Nelson until November 1867. The final judgement at the Supreme Court in Nelson on 3 January 1868 was made in Fearon's favour. (36)

Major-General Sir Edward Chaytor
The only New Zealander to exercise
command of an ANZAC force
at a divisional level.
In the meantime Captain Fearon had had enough. He just wanted to get shot of his troublesome sheep station and in August 1866 he sold ”Marathon” to Tetley for £20,700 (the equivalent of around $2.2 million today) – all left on mortgage. (37)

 The Fearons celebrated the first wedding in the family when their third daughter Emma married John Clervaux Chaytor Jnr at St Thomas’ Church, Motueka, on January 30, 1867.  Described in breathless detail by the “Nelson Evening Mail”, the marriage of “the lovely and accomplished daughter of Edward Fearon, Esq., ‘the King (as he has usually been called) of Motueka’”, was a social event of major proportions, with the guest list a veritable “Who’s Who” of local society. (38) The newly weds first went to live at the Chaytor brothers’ “Coverham Run” in the Awatere but later moved to a sheep station known as “Marshlands” in Spring Grove, Blenheim, where they ran a flax-milling operation. They had 12 children, with Emma returning home for the birth of the first. Born at “Northwood” on 21 June 1868 and named for both his lost uncle and his proud grandfather, Edward Walter Clervaux Chaytor (nicknamed “Fiery Ted” by his troops for his distinctive red hair) became a career soldier and distinguished military commander during WWI. He took part in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, commanding the New Zealand Mounted Rifle Brigade from 1916-17 and the ANZAC Mounted Divison from 1917 until the campaign's end in October 1918. All the Chaytor sons attended Nelson College and following their father's example, served with volunteer militia and regular armed forces in both New Zealand and England.

"The First Nelson Anniversary Regatta"
4 February 1843.
Artist: Charles Heaphy.
In 1872, Edward Fearon’s other niece, Mary Ellen Gibbard Burrell, married John Chaytor’s brother, Arthur, and they set up a sheep farm and flax milling operation on an estate in the Moutere Hills called “Seaton” after a Chaytor family estate in Yorkshire. It encompassed the site of the current Mapua township and port, then known as the ‘Western Entrance”. Arthur Chaytor was the first to build a jetty at the site of the present Mapua wharf, so that steamers on the Nelson coastal run could pick up his flax fibre and take it to market. Today’s Seaton Valley Road is a reminder of this estate, broken up around 1906

Joseph Dresser Tetley
Runholder, politician and
charismatic colonial con-man.
The summer of 1867 was a particularly busy one for Edward Fearon. A committee had been set up to organize Nelson’s 25th Anniversary celebrations, and as well as making arrangements for his daughter's wedding, he was organizing Anniversary events to be held in February at Motueka, having been appointed chairman of the Motueka branch of the Anniversary committee. From 1843 Nelson had marked the anniversary of settlement in February 1842 with dinners, regattas, horse races and public picnics, but no effort was to be spared in making this landmark Nelson Anniversary Day a successful affair. The programme of events shows a special emphasis on recognizing  the region’s earliest settlers.

Captain Fearon should have had every reason to feel confidence in the future, but in exchanging Caton for Tetley he had jumped from the frying pan into the fire. Joseph Dresser Tetley was a colonial con-man who left a number of men who had dealt with him in good faith facing financial ruin. In December 1868 Tetley skipped the country without having made any payment on ‘Marathon”, and leaving Fearon in a fix. He applied to the Supreme Court for the return of his run, which was sequestered following Tetley’s hasty departure, but was obliged to buy it back. The Court put “all that pastoral freehold estate of 13,000 acres known as the ‘Marathon Run’” up for auction on 16 June 1869, and out of sympathy for the Captain there was virtually no opposition. It was finally knocked down to him for £3000, less than the value of the buildings and fences on it.

Everybody loves a parade...
With band playing and Lodge banners flying
the Brethren of the Ancient Order of Foresters
prepare to march down High Street, Motueka.
They are lined up outside the Post Office Hotel.
Due to a slump in the prices of sheep and wool, Edward Fearon was unable to recoup his losses and became deeply despondent about his future prospects. However, he put on a brave face and carried on as usual. He appeared of good cheer in March 1869 when he presided over anniversary celebrations held by the Ancient Foresters. Joined by Brethren from Nelson, they paraded in their Lodge regalia down High Street to mark the occasion. Timed so that members could enjoy a Race Day at Motueka, the day ended with a well-lubricated dinner at the Motueka Hotel. Motueka's residents were equally well-lubricated after a day on the town, and further entertainment was provided by a free-for-all brawl in the streets outside. (39).

It came as a shock to all when Captain Fearon died suddenly in Nelson on 21 November 1869. Stress resulting from his “financial misadventures” was generally believed to have led to his death at the relatively early age of 55. He was buried at the old churchyard cemetery on Thorp Street, in land he himself had gifted to the community.

“Edward Fearon Esq. the deceased gentleman, was a colonist of twenty-six years standing and was highly esteemed in Motueka, where he resided, and by all who had the pleasure of his acquaintance”, eulogised the “Nelson Examiner” on 27 November 1869.

His death dismayed his many friends, especially the Greenwoods. In a letter to her sister-in-law Annie in Wellington, Clara Greenwood wrote on 1 December 1969, “You will have heard about the dear Fearons’ heavy affliction. I never saw trouble so meekly and beautifully borne before. The girls have been so brave and dear Mrs Fearon so humble and lovely in her grief; she quite awed me”. (40)

Edward Fearon's gravestone at
Pioneer Park, Thorp Street, Motueka.

"Sacred to the memory of
Edward Fearon
Died November 21 1869
Aged 56 years
Him that cometh to Me 

I will in no wise cast out
John 37:6"
Bishop Suter paid tribute in his annual address to the Clergy and Laity of the Nelson Diocese, recorded in the “Nelson Examiner” on 8 December, 1869: “We have lost an old and tried friend in Captain Fearon, who was a devoted and liberal member of the Church and seldom absent from these annual meetings. His family have our warmest sympathy."

Overall, though, the response at the time to Edward Fearon's death was strangely muted, especially given the effusive obituaries accorded his fellow pioneers. Coupled with the cause of death, recorded enigmatically as "melancholia", and the suggestive choice of Biblical text on his gravestone, this leads to speculation (unconfirmable after all this time) that he may have taken his own life, with the truth hushed up out of respect for his family.
Emma Chaytor nee Fearon

Daughter Emma and her husband John Chaytor came to live at “Northwood” periodically for the next few years to help sort out the estate. Money worries added to Mrs Fearon’s woes. Because of the very depressed state of the sheep-farming industry, Fearon’s executors (his friend Charles Thorp, nephew Edward Fearon Burrell and son-in-law John Chaytor) failed to find a buyer for “Marathon”, which was eventually leased out. Mrs Fearon’s brother John Ward came to the rescue. He.had earlier gone back to England to live and become a prosperous wine merchant based in London. In order to help his widowed sister Elizabeth out of her financial difficulties, Ward bought “Marathon” for £10, 000 in 1870. He sold it on in 1879 to its sitting tenant, Richard Beaumont, who merged it with his adjoining “Starborough” run. Beaumont also suffered heavy losses at the hands of Tetley but came about, only to throw himself from the Wellington-Lyttelton ferry on 8 May 1893 when faced with ruin for a second time after his sheep station was overrun by rabbits. (41)

The "Starborough Station" was divided up for settlement in 1899 and sections sold by ballot. The current Seddon township was sited directly opposite the old 'Starborough" homestead. The former "Marathon" homestead block was drawn by George M. Gunn, who then took the name "Marathon" for his new farm. At that time, all that was left of the old homestead were the remains of a cob house, a large shed and some magnificent black poplar trees.

Fanny Fearon
Married Fred Thomas
 of "Dehra Doon"
A happier occasion was celebrated at Motueka on 6 August 1873 (though no doubt their father’s presence would have been sadly missed) when Mary and Fanny Fearon were both married at St Thomas’ Church in a double ceremony. (42) The wedding, conducted by the Rev. Samuel Poole (recalled in Motueka's Poole Street) was another social highlight for the district, the church crowded with guests from far and near. Attended by four bridesmaids attired in fawn sateen and Dolly Varden caps with long scarlet streamers, the two brides didn’t disappoint in their wedding gowns of white lustre trimmed with swansdown and long lace veils.
Fanny, youngest of the Fearons’ daughters, married Frederick George Thomas, youngest son of Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Thynne Thomas, a retired Indian Army officer. The Thomas family had settled at Samuel Stephens' former Riwaka property, "Knowle Wood". They renamed it "Dehra Doon" after the Indian city of Dehradun in the Himalayan foothills, where Charles Thomas' regiment had been stationed and the family had owned a tea and sugar plantation. The name has since become attached to the general area. Frederick took over the "Dehra Doon" farm after his father's accidental death in 1874, He and Fanny had five children together. Another distinguished New Zealand commander, WWII veteran and author  Walter Babington “Sandy” Thomas, is one of their grandchildren. 

Lt-Col. C.T. Thomas
15th Regiment,
Bengal Native Infantry.
Second daughter Mary married Richmond Hursthouse. A son of the diarist John Hursthouse who in 1842 travelled to New Zealand with the Fearons on the “Thomas Sparks”, after joining the Fearon family Richmond Hursthouse lived with his wife at “Northwood” and ably managed his mother-in-law's holdings until 1893, when he was appointed manager of the Australasian Gold Trust and Pioneer Company’s works at West Wanganui, North West Nelson. He served for many years as Member of Parliament for the Motueka electorate and became Motueka’s first Mayor after the town was created a borough in 1899. Hursthouse Street in Lower Moutere is named for him. He and Mary had 8 children.

Edward Fearon Jnr
Tragedy struck at the end of 1880. The younger of the Fearons’ sons, Edward, died on 20 November 1880 at the age of 27 after being hospitalised at the Asylum in Nelson. The cause of death was given as “a spasm of the heart”. Edward Fearon Jnr had attended the Bishopdale Theological College in Nelson for some time before deciding that taking up the law would be a useful adjunct to his work for the Anglican church. He had been articled to a firm of solicitors in Wanganui and travelled to Wellington to take his final qualifying examinations. Anxiety about the results (sadly, in the event he passed with flying colours) appears to have precipitated a psychotic episode, which saw him briefly committed to the Wellington Asylum. Upon improving he was sent home to Nelson on the steamer “Wakatu”, but his bizarre behaviour during the trip led to fears that he would harm himself or others. He was admitted on arrival to the Nelson Asylum, where he died shortly afterwards. In his attendant's absence he pulled out his own right eye, the shock resulting in a fatal heart attack. (43) There was no kindly conspiracy of silence to shield the Fearon family this time - newspapers trumpeted the sad tale of madness and self-mutilation throughout the country in lurid detail. Although Edward Jnr's death was generally reported as a suicide, it was not ruled as such. As to a mark of solidarity with the bereaved Fearon family, always staunch supporters of the Anglican Church, Bishop Suter himself conducted the committal service held on 22 November 1880 at the old St Thomas’ churchyard burial ground.
St James Church, Ngatimoti.
Consecrated by Bishop Suter 

on 28 October 1884.

Elizabeth Ludwig Fearon, oldest of the Fearons’ children, never married but lived at home with her mother and was much involved with work for the Anglican Church. This included assisting with the Whakarewa Orphanage, a later, equally controversial incarnation of the unsuccessful Whakarewa School. She was a leading member of the St Thomas Ladies' Guild, whose meetings were often held at "Northwood". Thanks to the connection with her cousin Edward Burrell, she took a great interest in the establishment of the St James Anglican Church at Ngatimoti, consecrated in 1884. Her brother Edward Fearon Jnr had been a member of Bishop Suter's party which visited Ngatimoti in January 1880, marked out the site of the proposed church and spent several days in the Mt Arthur Tablelands, where the Bishop preached to the diggers working their claims up there. Lizzie Fearon made several bequests to St James, including the pulpit, font, and on behalf of the St Thomas' Ladies' Guild, the chancel rails. She also funded the purchase of a property in the Orinoco Valley known as "Berrylands" to house Ngatimoti's only resident Vicar, the Rev. Reginald Hermon, who served at St James between 1888-1890. (44)

Mary Hursthouse nee Fearon (lt)
The town's flags all flew at half mast

 to mark the death of Motueka's
first Mayoress
Mrs Fearon died at home on 1 January 1901 in her 90th year, after a long and eventful life, sustained to the end by her family and faith, and leaving numerous descendants. She was buried alongside her husband and sons at the churchyard cemetery in Thorp Street. Her daughter Mary died in Motueka on 1 September 1901 at the age of 49 and all the flags in town were flown at half mast as a tribute to Motueka’s Mayoress.  She was buried at the Motueka Cemetery. Mary was followed on 1st November 1907 by her older sister, Elizabeth, who lies at the old St Thomas’ churchyard with her parents and brothers. Emma died on 8 May 1913 and was buried at the Tuamarina Cemetery in Blenheim. Fanny, the last of Captain Fearon’s children to pass away, died on 7 December 1913 and was buried at the Riwaka Cemetery.

"Faith, Hope and Charity"
Stained glass window gifted to
St Thomas Anglican Church, Motueka, in
 memory of Elizabeth Fearon and her
daughters Elizabeth, Mary, Emma and Frances.
Representing Faith, Hope and Charity, the magnificent stained glass east window in the current St Thomas Church was presented in 1915 by the Chaytor family of “Marshlands”, Blenheim, “To the Glory of God and in Loving Memory of Elizabeth Fearon and her daughters Elizabeth, Mary, Emma and Frances”. (45)
Following Mrs Fearon’s death the ‘Northwood” estate was held by her daughter Lizzie Fearon until she in turn died in 1907. Some of this land was then subdivided for building allotments and auctioned by the trustees of the Fearon Estate in 1911. Other blocks were bequeathed to various family members. Included in the auction were the lease to100 acres of Whakerewa Trust land and 98 acres at Lower Moutere.
The original “Northwood” house burnt down in the late 1920s. The 20 acre “Northwood” homestead block was inherited by Beatrice Chaytor, oldest daughter of John and Emma (nee Fearon) Chaytor. She sold it around 1929 to Jeffrey McGlashen (Mac) Inglis (1902-1983,) who dreamed of building a second “Northwood” there. Eventually he did so, creating an imposing showplace home on the site of Captain Fearon’s former homestead, and naming it “Northwood” after its predecessor. It is still in the Inglis family today. Instrumental in developing the local hop industry, Mac Inglis’ hop garden became the largest in New Zealand and he gave it the name “Northwood Gardens”. (46) Now run by his son, Robert Inglis, the business is known today as the “Northwood Hops Company” and has a new sideline, “Northwood Wines”.

Mac Inglis' dream home.
A second "Northwood" built on the same site as
Captain Fearon's original "Northwood" homestead.
The legacy of Captain Fearon and his family is commemorated in Motueka by two familiar place names. The old trees along the avenue which once led to the “Northwood” homestead were cut down and the winding drive straightened to become the road now known as Fearon Street, and in 1914 7½ acres of “Northwood”’s original native bush were purchased by the Motueka Borough Council from another of Captain Fearon’s grandchildren, D’Arcy Chaytor, for use as a public reserve named "Fearon’s Bush. At first a popular setting for public picnics, band concerts and sports days, after the Second World War it was more commonly used as an unofficial camping ground than a venue for public events. Although it became an official camping ground in 1995, “Fearon’s Bush” remains in the hands of the Tasman District Council and is still classified as a public reserve. (47) Edward Fearon is also remembered in the Marlborough township.of Seddon. One of a number of street names featuring pioneering runholders of the old Awatere, "Fearon Street" is rather ironically sited next to "Tetley Street", named for the Captain's nemesis, Joseph Dresser Tetley.

"Camping in the bush" (1865)
Artist: John Gully

"The late Captain Fearon was one of the best known

of the early pioneers.
He landed in Nelson, but shortly after came to Motueka,
where he was was looked upon as the "Village Father",
often being called upon to settle disputes in those days".


Opening text comes from the King James Bible --- Psalms 107:23-24.

Closing piece is taken from an obituary written to mark the death of Elizabeth (Lizzie) Fearon, Captain Fearon's oldest daughter, published in the "Marlborough Express", November 12, 1907, under "Personal" items.


1) Register of All Hallows, Bread Street, London
Baptisms, Register V, p 69
"1813 Dec.12. Edward son of Isaac (stockbroker) and Elizabeth Fearon, late of this parish but now residing in Shove Place in the Parish of St John, Hackney. B. October 31".

2) St Leonard’s, Shoreditch, London, Parish Registrations: Marriage certificate #668 Isaac Fearon to Elizabeth Baty (widow)

3), supported by information provided by Mr D. Burrell

4) Kennington, A.L.(1978) “The Awatere: A  District and its People”. Blenheim, NZ: Marlborough District Council. Ch. 4 The Awatere Sheep Runs, p 45.

5)  Loss of the “City of Edinburgh” at Flinders Island on 11 July 1840.
(1840, 8 August) “Sydney Herald”, p 2

6) Journal of the Motueka and District Historical Association (1992) Vol. 6 Not Without Courage: Our First Settlers. [Motueka, NZ]: Motueka and District Historical Association. Edward and Elizabeth Fearon, pp 61-62.

7) Neale, June E. (1982) “Pioneer Passengers: To Nelson by Sailing Ship – March 1842-June 1843”. Nelson, NZ: Anchor Press. Ch. XIV “Thomas Sparks”, pp 111-115

8) Correspondence re the discovery of Nelson Haven
(1846, 2 May) "Nelson Examiner & NZ Chronicle", pg 35

9) Ngāti Rārua Ᾱtiawa Iwi Trust (NRAIT). Our Stories.
Te Maatu: some early perspectives.
See also:
Hilary Mitchell and John Mitchell, "Te Tau Ihu Tribes- Land Loss"'
Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand

10) “The Motuaka District”, by an Officer of the Surveying Staff
(1842, 13 August) "Nelson Examiner", p 91 (Cont’d p 92)

11) Allan, "Nelson", Ch. VI, "Country Land" p  217

12) “Horrible Massacre at the Wairoo”
(1843, 1 July), “Nelson Examiner and NZ Chronicle”, p 274

13) Allan, "Nelson". Ch.VI "The Early Settlement of Nelson", pp 215-218
See also: Mitchell, Hilary & Mitchell, John (2004) "Te Tau o Te Waka: A History of Maori of Nelson and Marlborough". Vol I Te Tangata me te Wahanau: The People and the Land, p 330

14) Fox, William (1 December 1843) Report “giving a cursory account of proceedings of the agriculturalists” in the Nelson region sent to Colonel William Wakefield, Principal Agent of the New Zealand Company in Wellington.
See extract concerning Motueka settlers and their activities.
New Zealand Company correspondence (1841-1850), New Zealand Company Papers (1840-50) The Nelson Provincial Museum, qMS NEW (Bett Collection)

15) Neale, June E. (1984) “The Greenwoods: A Pioneer Family of New Zealand”. Nelson, NZ: Anchor Press. "Ch.XIII  "Nelson College", p 74

16) Brougham, Thomas (Tom) Godsall Brougham (also known as 'Bunkie") (1849-1939)
Recollections of early Motueka and Lower Moutere (Oral history - unpublished ms)

17) Allan, "Nelson", Ch VI "Country Land", p 205

18) Allan, "Nelson", Ch.VI, p 232
See also: Jim McAloon, Land ownership: Early Pakeha land settlement,
Wakefield’s settlements
Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand

19) Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle" Nelson, NZ.(1843-1861)
Lists of persons qualified to serve as Jurors for the District of Nelson.

20) Neale, June E. (1984) "Pioneer Passengers”. Nelson, NZ: Anchor Press. Ch. VIII “Olympus” pp 59-60.

21) Salisbury, J. Neville (2006) "Bush, Boots and Bridle Trails. The Salisburys: Pioneers of the Motueka and Aorere Valleys.Auckland, NZ: J. Neville Salisbury, The Deck Connection, p 253.

22) Neale, June E. (1984) "The Greenwoods: A Pioneer Family of New Zealand" Nelson, NZ: General Printing Services Ltd. Ch. X,  Early Motueka & Bishop Selwyn, pg 58

23) “Recollections of Earlier Days in Motueka – Part Two” (December 1959) Told by Edmund Parker in 1935 and 1936
Nelson Historical Society Journal 1(4), p 6

24) Brougham, Thomas Godsall (Tom)
"Recollections of early Motueka and Lower Moutere"

25) Mitchell Hilary & Mitchell, John (2004) "Te Tau o Te Waka: A History of Maori of Nelson and Marlborough". Wellington, NZ: Huia Publishers in assoiation with Wakatu Corporation.  Vol I Te Tangata me te Wahanau The People and the Land. "Kidnap and Ransom - the Wairau 'Purchase'", pp 349-353.

26) Kennington, A.L. (1978) “The Awatere: A  District and its People”. Blenheim, NZ: Marlborough District Council. Ch. 4 The Awatere Sheep Runs: “Marathon”, pp 45-46  & “Langridge”, pp 92-93.

27)  Notice of Election as a Member to the Nelson Provincial Council: Edward Fearon for Motueka and Massacre Bay (Reprinted from the “Government Gazette”)
(1853, 25 August) “Nelson Examiner & NZ Chronicle”, p 3

28) “Trip to the Rivers Buller and Grey.” Extracts from Captain Fearon’s journal.
(!860, 21 March) “Nelson Examiner & NZ Chronicle”, p 2
See also:
Explorations in the Middle Island (Now the South Island), Mr James Mackay’s Account.
(1905, 1 October) “Ohinemuri Gazette”, p 2
29) Deed of Exchange dated 11th June 1864.
Lands at Motueka and Motupipi: Commissioners of Native Reserves and Edward Fearon.

30) Advertisement - Cattle Trespass Act (1868) Elizabeth Fearon gives notice that owners of cattle straying on her land at Motueka, being Sections 137, 138, 155 & 156, will be subject to prosecution.
(1876, 1 August) "Nelson Evening Mail", p 3

31) Nelson Volunteers: Commissions confirmed.
(1860, 19 June) "Colonist", pg 2

32) Broad, Lowther (1892) “The Jubilee History of Nelson : 1842-1892”. Nelson, NZ: Bond, Finney & Co. Ch IX
See also
Rawson, Herbert D. (2011) “A Chilling Tale of Two Cities: Starring Herbert P. Rawson – ‘To be or not to be”’. Nelson Historical Society Journal, 7(3), pp 25-32

33)  Washbourn, H.P. (nd ) "Further Reminscences of Early Days". Nelson NZ: A.G. Betts & Sons.
Ch Vii "Travelling by Water", pp 60-61. Anyone who had travelled on a paddle steamer "would understand the description of being sea sick thus expressed, 'For the first half hour they were afraid they would die and after that they were afraid they would not'".

34) Nomination at Motueka
(1866, 9 March), “Colonist”, p 3

35) Motueka: Resident Magistrates’ Court
Macmahon v Fearon plus Fearon v Macmahon
(1868, 25 August) “Colonist”, p 3

36) (1867, 29 November) "Colonist", pg 3. Supreme Court of New Zealand, Nelson: Caton v Fearon.
See also
(1868, 18 January) "Marlborough Express", p 5. Sittings in Banco: Caton v Fearon final judgement.

37) Kennington, "Awatere" p 46

38) Marriage: Chaytor-Fearon
(1867, 4 February) “Nelson Evening Mail”

39) (1869, 9 April) "Colonist" p 5. "Motueka Races"

40) Porter, Frances & Macdonald, Charlotte, eds. (1996) “My Hand will Write what my Heart Dictates: the Unsettled Lives of Women in nineteenth-century New Zealand as revealed to sisters, family and friends”. Wellington, NZ: Auckland University Press, p 472

41) Kennington, 'Awatere" p 46

42) Marriages: Husthouse-Fearon & Thomas-Fearon
(1873, 26 August), “Colonist”, p 2

43) Melancholy Event (Death of Edward Fearon Jnr)
(1880, 2 December), “Colonist", p 5

44) The history and milestone celebrations of St James Church, Ngatimot 1884-2009. (Unpaged)
(2009). Nelson, NZ: Nelson Diocese

45) Dalton, Constance (1959) “The History of St Thomas’s Anglican Church, Motueka” (1838-1958). Motueka, NZ: Publication Committee, p 79.

46) Mitchell, David (June, 1982) “The Mac Inglis Story”.
Published as a 5 part series in the “Motueka News” section of the “Nelson Evening Mail” See Part 3, “Lady in a Black Rolls-Royce”.

47) Journal of the Motueka and District Historical Association (2007) Vol. 7 Three Living Monuments – the story of our first parks, pp 20-22 Motueka, NZ :Motueka and District Historical Association.

Further references


Journal of the Motueka and District Historical Association (1984) Vol. 2  The Anglican Church, pp 34-55. Motueka, NZ : Motueka and District Historical Association

Journal of the Motueka and District Historical Association (1989) Vol. 5  Motueka and District Historical Association. See Motueka and District in Early Years, pp 3-4; Captain Thoms’ Saw Mill, pp 4-10; Loyal Motueka Lodge of Oddfellows, pp 11-14; Church of England Cemetery in Thorp Street, pp 20-21; Motueka Literary Institution, pp 33-47. Motueka, NZ:  Motueka and District Historical Association.

Bester, R. ed. (2010) “Harvest of Grace: Essays in Celebration of 150 Years of Mission in the Anglican Diocese of Nelson. Nelson, NZ: Anglican Diocese of Nelson.

Dawber, Carol (2016) "Motueka Wharf 100 Years". Picton, NZ: River Press
(With the Motueka and Districts Historical Association)

Lash, Max D. (1992) "Nelson Notables 1840-1940: A dictionary of regional biography". Nelson, NZ: Nelson Historical Society Inc.

Loftus, Helen J. (1997) 'The Tetley Affair: Colonial Dreams & Nightmares." Waikanae, NZ: Heritage Press.

McAloon, Jim (1997) “Nelson: A Regional History”. Whatamango Bay, Queen Charlotte Sound, NZ: Cape Catley Ltd in association with the Nelson City Council.

Mitchell Hilary & Mitchell, John (2004) "Te Tau o Te Waka: A History of Maori of Nelson and Marlborough". Wellington, NZ: Huia Publishers in association with Wakatu Corporation. Vol II Te Ara Hou - The New Society.

Ross, John O. (1982) “Capt. F.G. Moore: Mariner and Pioneer”.
Wanganui, NZ: Wanganui Newspapers.

Washbourn, H.P. (1933) "Reminiscences of Early Days". Nelson, NZ: R. Lucas & Son


Newport, J.N.W. (May, 1957) “Goldfields in the Upper Motueka and Buller Valleys”. Nelson Historical Society Journal 1 (2)
“Recollections of Earlier Days in Motueka - Part One” (November, 1957) Told by Edmund Parker in 1935 and 1936
Nelson Historical Society Journal, 1(3) pp 13-15


Rigg, E.M. (November, 1944) "A History of the Anglican Church in Nelson" Thesis for an M.A. in History (University of Canterbury).;jsessionid=7578D2C89A87A815BF8ED0375855555F?sequence=1 

Papers Past

1916, 4 March) "Nelson Evening Mail" Jubliee Editon, pg 5. Men in Public Life: Roll of Nelson Politicians.